sâmbătă, 11 februarie 2012


Dr. George Anca


Dr. George Anca


It seems that through the 25th International Ramayana Conference in Mysore (November, 2009), one from wherever part of the world feels one's identification with God as Rama faighting Ravana. Even 'Hindu countries' don't include Romania, Ramayana is there much more than a coffee house with this name in Bucharest. Some correspondences are mentioned bellow both from general cultural references and from author's fictional own ramayanic writings: heroes, polycephaly, Sanskrit Dacia, Rama from Carpathians, New York Ramayana etc.

From Ramayana by Sage Valmiki

raamo raamo raama iti prajaanaamabhavan kathaaH |
raamabhuutaM jagaabhuudraame raajyaM prashaasati || 6-128-103
While Rama ruled the kingdom, the talks of the people centered round Rama, Rama and Rama. The world became Rama's world.
From Ramavataram by kavicakravati Kamban
Rama walked majestically towards Siva's bow, putting even the lion, the bull, the golden Meru, and the elephant to shame.
They just saw Rama taking the bow in his hand and instantly heard the sound of the breaking bow!

From Ramcaritamanasa by Saint Tulsi Das
Men who devoutly take a plunge into it are never scorched with the burning rays of the sun of worldly illusion.

Names depending on the versions
Rama, Ram, Bhargava: incarnation of Vishnu; oldest son of Dasharatha and Kausalya; husband of Sita; fater of Kusha and Lava
Asamiya: Vasumati
Balinese: Ramadewa
Chinese: Lo-mo
Javanese: Ragawa, Ramachandra, Sri Rama(wijaya)
Khamti: Chao Laman
Khmer: Preah Ram, Preah Ream
Lao: Ph(r)a Lahmahrat, Ph(r)a Lamma
Malay: Agung Gempita, Seri Rama
Maranao: Radia Mangandiri
Pali: Ramapandita
Prakrit: Pauma
Tamil: Iraman
Thai: Daranoi, Phram, Phara Ram
: Ramana
Vietnamese: Chung Du
Sita, Janaki, Maithili: incarnation of Lakshmi; wife of Rama; mother of Kusha and Lava
Balinese: Dewi Sita
Javanese: Dewi Sinta
Kannada: Sittama
Karbi: Ita Kunri
Khmer: Neang Seda, Neang Seta, Neang Sita
Lao: Nang Sita
Malay: Puteri bungsu Hanyut, Chahaya Keinderaan, Sakutum Bunga Satangkai, Sita Dewi, Siti Dewi
Maranao: Tuwan Potre malaila Ganding, Tuwan Potre Malono Tihaia
Myanmar: Thida
Singhalese: Sitapati
Tamil: Shitai
Thai: Nang Piphat That Loi, Nang Sida
Tibetan: Rol-rNyed-ma, Zita
Vietnamese: Bach Tinh
Ravana, Dashagriva, Dashakantha, Dashamukha, Asura Vana: ogre king of Langka; husband of mandodari; faterh of Indrajit
Balinese: Rawana
Hindi: Ravan
Javanese: Rahwana, Dasamuka
Kannada: Ravula
Karbi: Raban
Kawi: Rawana, Dasamukha
Khmer: Rab(n), Rabana, Krong Reap
Lao: Bommahchak, Dotsakhan, Haphanasun, Rabbahnasun
Malay: Dauwichit, Gambar mahasakti, maharaja Duwana, maharaja Wana, Rahana, Raja Di Rimba, Rawana
Maranao: Maharadia Lawana, Maharadia Duwan
Mongolian: Mangus, Tesegiriy, Tisegiri
Myanmar: Datthagiri
Sundanese: Rawana
Tamil: Iravanan
Thai: Thotsakan
Tibetan: Ashapa, mDa’shagriba
Vietnamese: Trang Minh
Hanuman, Hanumat, Anjaneya, Anjata, Maruti: sof of Anjana and Vayu; monkey leader Balinese: Hanoman
Javanese: Anoman, Senggana
Karbi: Haliman
Khmer: Anjat, Anujit
Lao: Hanumon(e), Hulahman, Hunahman, Huonahman, Huorahman
Malay: haduman, Hanuman Kera Putih, Kera Kechil Iman Tergangga, Phalawan Udara, ShahNuman
Maranao: Laksamana (Mangawarna is the name of Lakshmana)
Singhalese: Hanumant
Tamil: Anuman
Thai: Anchar, Wanon
Tibetan: Hanumandha, Hanumanta

Polycephaly - Greek mythology

  • Greek mythology contains a number of multi-headed creatures. Typhon, a vast grisly monster with a hundred heads and a hundred serpents issuing from his thighs, is often described as having several offspring with Echidna, a creature with the body of a serpent but the face of a beautiful woman.-headed dragon that guards the garden of the Hesperides
·      Chimera – sometimes depicted with the heads of a goat and a lion
·    The Lernaean Hydra – an ancient nameless serpent-like chthonic water beast that possessed numerous heads
·      Orthrus – a two-headed dog owned by Geryon
Other accounts state that some of these creatures were the offspring of Phorcys and Ceto. Phorcys is also said to have fathered Scylla, a giant monster with six dogs' heads, which terrorises Odysseus and his crew.

Polycephaly - Other mythologies

·         Balaur, a dragon in Romanian mythology, with three, seven or twelve heads
·         Janus, a two- or four-faced god in Roman mythology
·         Kaliya, a multi-headed snake vanquished by Krishna in Indian mythology
·         Nehebkau, a two-headed snake in Egyptian mythology
·         Orochi, an eight-headed snake in Japanese mythology
·         Ravana, the ten-headed King of Lanka from the Hindu smriti Ramayana
·         Triglav (meaning "three headed") is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology
·         Zmey Gorynych, a dragon in Slavic mythology

Romanian myths part of international culture

·         Vampire - See strigoi and moroi, which are more phantom- or wizard-like creatures.
·         (vârcolac)
·         Şobolan - A giant rat similar to the SA capybara. Rural Romanian folklore attributes the şobolan human Werewolfcharacteristics.
·         Solomonar - See Hultan and Solomonari, which were a group of nobles and wizards made famous more by the families who were members of the society then for their deeds. However, this is mainly do to the secret crusades of Christianity and their attempt to destroy all history and knowledge of these Wizards. Some of these names include Dracula Vlad, Solomon, Despina the Impure, Ty'ere, Ventruszch, Brohmyr, Izhain and Vohc.
Most of these names can be found in Romanian Lore in reference to Vampires and Dragons.

Personages in folk literature

·         Baba Dochia
·         Balaur (dragon)
·         Baubau, variant form Babau (similar to the Bogeyman)
·         Căpcăun (an ogre)
·         Căţelul Pământului
·         Fata Pădurii
·         Ileana Cosânzeana
·         Iele
·         Luceafăr - similar to Planet Venus
·         Moroi (a type of vampire)
·         Moşul (the old man)
·         Muma Pădurii
·         Pricolici (a werewolf or demon)
·         Rohmani (or Blajini)
·         Samca
·         Solomonari
·         Sânziana (or Drăgaică)
·         Spiriduş (a sprite)
·         Stafie - similar to Ghost
·         Strigoi (a vampire or zombie)
·         Uniilă (a devil )
·         Uriaş - similar to Giant
·         Ursitoare - similar to the Fates
·         Vasilisc - similar to Basilisk
·         Vâlva
·         Vântoase (spirits of the wind)
·         Vârcolac (werewolf)
·         Zână (fairy)
·         Zburător
·         Zorilă
·         Zmeu


·         Ber-Căciulă
·         Doamna Neaga
·         Făt-Frumos
·         Ileana Cosânzeana
·         Greuceanu
·         Iovan Iorgovan
·         Ler Imparat
·         Luana
  • Baba Novac

Rama from Carpathians

1.                  There are authors sustaining that the Indo-Europeans and the Vedic culture started from the territory of Romania. Accordingly, Rama from Carpathians left it in front of Arian tribes thousands o f years before Christ. Striking arguments are brought about the identity between Rama and Negru-Vodă, founder prince of Valachia (Romanian Country).
Both names mean “black”, without connexion with physical appearance (see the symbolism of Red Emperor, Green Emperor, Yellow, White, Black, in Chinese culture and Romanian fairy tales). Rama is Chandra, the moon, Negru-Vodă is crai (king and moon). Both are preservers of dharma, exiled princes. Indian Bihar has a corespondent in Biharia/Bihor (in Transylvania), Ayodhya is Aiud. Rama and Lakshmana become Roman and Vlahata in a legend. A city (dava) Ramadava (Ramidava) existed in ancient Dacia (actual Romania), and a Walachian (Romanian) prince, Ramung, appears in medieval German Nibelungs epic. Both Sita and the wife of Negru-Vodă end tragically. (Gheorghe Şeitan, “Rama din Carpaţi şi legendarul Negru-Vodă”, paper sustained at the International Congress of Dacology, Bucharest, 14-16 June 2009).
Extravagant (becoming poetic/epic) chapters in books include: the celebrate Aryans were Carpathian-Istrians; the Vedas contain the spirituality of our ancestors; the battles of Bala-Rama in Carpathians; Ramayana describes Romania; Omu, saint mountain of Aryans; birth of Indra - at Porţile de Fier (Iron Gates); Hercules was ... Indra; Geto-Dacians and Vedic people believed in same Eternal God; The religion of Getas – a religion of the Infinite and Eternal Universe; Budha moved to Dacia ( Da.ksa-Ţara Zeilor, Nicolae Miulescu, editura Obiectiv Craiova, Eugen Delcea; Da.ksa God's country, Ed. Nagard, Veneţia, 1975);
Romania – the Pontic India; Rama from Romania; the saint language, Sanskrit, was the language of Dacians; the mountain Omu – the sanctuary of mankind; the area of forefathers – from Indus to Atlanta; Agni Tatăl (Father), the god of fire from Agni.Ta; religious conflict can lead to atomic war; the Vedas were born ...at Black See; Ramayana storied by the map of Romania; Sanskrit – the language of the Romanians (Dacia – Ţara Zeilor / Dacia – The Country of Gods , Tudor D iaconu).
Some Romanian toponymics can be analysed through Sanskrit, e.g. Deva, Orăştie, Pecica (cf pecaka/owl), Agnita (Agni), Prahova (pravaha/flowing), Dacia (Dakşa/ country Da). Some Romanian words have correspondences in Sanskrit, e.g. brambura (bhram/to mistake), dandana (danda/stick and punishment), haz (has), rai (rai/good, richness), zvon (svan/to resound) (Problemă – Mioara Căluşiţă-Alecu, Ed. Orfeu, 2000)
New York Ramayana
abducted Seeta Rama / Lakshmana absent / not so Hanuman // predators of virtue / opposed to sandals / witnesses of killing // abduct me soul cries to god / abduct me bred temptation is translated / crush yourself on abducting time wheel
America is Ravana Seeta is the abducted / world Rama didn't change himself / our mother is of godhead // dearer dear Seeta / is neither Radha in Vraja / nor Savitri resurrecting the dead // permission Krishnaits Savitrins / I pray to God's Mother for Seeta / I pray to Seeta for God's Mother
in study own salvation dance the goodness / abducted Rama himself in person of loved Seeta / Seeta salvating herself mountain and weapons // God loves also the one he kills / Bali the killed Ravana Vidu / dropped by foliage folklore composition // God kills also the one he loves / kills himself turns into resurrection / the beggar begs us to pass through him
Kali more Seeta more Mary more Radha / stringing our heads on thread from a / birth on forefathers' darkness // lost in my death's birth / I pray to you killing nascence / for keeping our hearts to spring // I bow to inconceivable overbelieving / in graces of god and of the abductor / loosing themselves in our growth
let Radha teach us forest's way / Savitri pulling also us out / of cutted tree sculptured Maiastra // glory to mother's cancer to father's paralysis / for you to pray for their birth / we stick to you anonymous immigrants // prayer of prayers to mothers' mother / to Rama to Hanuman / in the garden of Christ's Mother
the will of receivers of abducted women / hidden by Ravana's gardens / at once Ganeshan incompleteness // Ganesh in America should be the theme / the cutted time like tusk of Ganesh / the son in stories of ours // in Indian Ocean on Africa in Atlantic / in Thai also gulf in tsunami / Hanuman strengthened me in courage
arnam Brahma food is god / Sri Chinmoy played fifteen instruments / then silent meditation and dvds shared // dinner with roses on questionnaire I wrote / close to god through songs and / still more through resulting silence / pandit that a writer at phone // first time no then already yankee / in New York only for Ramayana bhai
global Ravanic terrorism / the old one makes pranayam at tea / dios del fuego black pyramid // with never a cloud in the skies / may every moment of sadness / prove only a joy in disguise // no one religious sum spiritual / spirituality unites religions / persons of divine revelation
there are animals better than humans / Ravana could have been killed only by monkeys or men / Hanuman embodiment of Shiva guru of the universe // neither I believe in god / this is god's mistake not mine / his grace didn't want to come into my life // without Hanuman's help one can't be Rama's devotee / right guide monkey shape also Brahma could be / at coronation in Ayodhya all monkeys take human shape
no standing anyway but I am wet / after the cherries on Hook Creek / back Eldorado's Lal with Lalan // under this bridge the woman gives birth to war // with sin toward peace Merrick past / rain's cruise do not lean on door // I write myself Ramayana orthodox Easter / in gospel Seeta Mary shed magnolia tree / the girl gets down before library
electrified tables for computer / small girl looking to paradise's dictator / Latin Gutenberg's annotated bible // Quintus Smirnaeus The Fall of Troy / John Quinn The Man from New York / Iliad war Ramayana dharma // go in as much America you want get back / from secondary citizenship unslept sleep / reeding room as a stadium NYPL
Drago shoe repair extrogenius Dracula / by grace of god who is Rama shanti / seriocomic extreme the god of hell // rain by window of theatricality / flood over New Yorker Ganesh / his tween tusks went to the dogs // harder than New York neither pork I retort / girls left themselves on Archimedes's / pouring on them golden ware from thunder
Pandit Ram Lall doesn't advise Indians to come / in America no what to do here any talent / is bought home is more recognized // Chand colleague with them rich and how cold / any body how is nature is fair he is claming / seniority to me I am older uncle John Ion // all artists in the second line Sri Ram Tulsidas Valmiki / great men pandit's dream to bring Ramayana in / New York Hanuman Chalisa sanathana dharma
divine aesthetics at sarod distinguished yogi Chinmoy / silence small conversations seem cries I still write you / whip of silence empire garland calypso // urge carry his sitar he leaves no applause / big word sacredness of the conference sin of difference / religious and communist zones materialist countries have no future // Ramaraja ideal love for people more than for self / Ravanaraja Mary put by pope to destroy nonchristianity / Rama in Shiva Rameshvara Siva param guru
at Ayodhya reigned Dilipa Raghu Aja Dasaratha / Rama avatar of Vishnu and more 24 solars in 19 cantos / from Raghuvamsa by Kalidasa to be pastiched with Manu / his son toward son serving Nandini heifer from Surabhi // on Sindhu he conquered husbands of blushing Huna women / thousands of camels and mares carry treasures received by Kautsa / beings lighted from sun lamp from lamp son from son / hand to the feet of royal duty milked sky // Indumati gives birth to Dasaratha thousands years pass / Ravana persecuting the gods then Rama from Kausalya / Bharata from Kaikeyi twins Lakshmana and / Satrughna from Sumitra reincarnate Vishnu
in the navy Pushpaka from Lanka to Ayodhya he shows to Seeta / Malyavat Pampa Chitrakuta Ganga Yamuna Sarayu / political slander on her stay in stranger's house order / to Lakshmana to leave her on Ganges when pregnant // the sons Kusa and Lava taught by Valmiki Ramayana / to sing to their father at horse sacrifice killed Sambuka / he will receive Seeta back if she will prove pure / to her subjects she mortgages and her mother earth embraces her // ruined Ayodhya after death of Rama / Adhidevata calls in dream Kusa at reign / his bracelet slips in water Sarayu and naga / Kumudvati returns it together with her hand
(New York Ramayana – George Anca, AIME, 2005)

International Ramayana meet in Romania 

Bucharest, Sep 22 (IANS) Romania has been proposed as the next host of the International Ramayana Conference, after the 22nd edition of the event concluded recently in the British city of Birmingham.
Romania, which is slated to join the European Union on Jan 1, 2007, has been the epicentre for European gypsies, who maintain that their ancestors originated from India. It is pointed out that there are some 8,000 Romani words that have Hindi and Sanskrit roots.
'Romania looks for spiritual guidance only from two places, Italy and India,' said George Anca, director-general of the National Library of Education, Bucharest.
Anca, greatly attached to the philosophy of the Ramayana, has been instrumental in setting up an Indian Library within the complex of the National Library where many researchers are working on Hindi and Sanskrit texts.
Former Indian president Shankar Dayal Sharma and recently Vice President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat visited the Indian Library during their trips to the country.
It is imperative to spread the message of the Ramayana in different parts of the world in an age of ever growing violence, Anca told IANS in an interview.
He said: 'The ancient message of the Ramayana continues to be relevant for the human race. It is not surprising that Mahatama Gandhi was tremendously influenced by the teachings of the Ramayana. If Gandhiji is still relevant for the world so is his guidebook - Ramayana.'

(By Surender Bhutani, Indo-Asian News Service | 22 September 2006 | 10:43am) 


Valmiki Ramayana is said to have been composed basing on each of the twenty-four letters of Gayatri Hymn, and a thousand verses are arranged into one book under the caption of each letter. Though that classification, or dividing verses into thousand chapters is unavailable now, the twenty-four verses identified with the 24 letters of Gayatri hymn, called as Gayatri Ramayana, is available and it is given in the endnote of this page. In tune with the scheme of Gayatri, Ramayana starts the first verse with letter ta an auspicious letter.  @ 1998, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised - March 04]

Valmiki: Ramayana
tapaH svaadhyaaya nirataam tapasvii vaagvidaam varam |
naaradam paripapracCha vaalmiikiH muni pu.mgavam || 1-1-1
A thoughtful-meditator, an eternally studious sage in scriptures about the Truth and Untruth, a sagacious thinker, and a sublime enunciator among all expert enunciators is Narada, and with such a Divine Sage Narada, the Sage-Poet Valmiki is inquisitively enquiring about a man who is a composite for all merited endowments in his form and calibre. [1-1-1]

"In valour Rama is comparable with Vishnu, and in his looks he is attractive like full-moon, he equals the earth in his perseverance, but he is matchable with era-end-fire in his wrath... and in benevolence he is identical to Kubera, God of Wealth-Management, and in his candour he is like Dharma itself, the other God Probity on earth... [1-1-18, 19a]
"That inestimable intellectual Hanuma on approaching that great-souled Rama, and on performing circumambulation around him in reverence, subtly submitted that, 'Seen... Seetha...' [1-1-78]
"When Rama is enthroned then the world will be highly regaled and rejoiced, exuberant and abundant, also rightly righteous, trouble-free, disease-free, and free from fear of famine..." Thus Narada is foreseeing the future and telling Valmiki. [1-1-90]
"While Rama is on the throne men will not see the deaths of their children anywhere in their lifetime, and the ladies will remain husband-devout and unwidowed during their lifetime... [1-1-91]
"In the kingdom of Rama there is no fear for subjects from wildfires, gale-storms or from diseases, and there is no fear from hunger or thieves, nor the cattle is drowned in floodwaters, as well... [1-1-92, 93a]
 idam pavitram paapaghnam puNyam vedaiH ca sa.mmitam |
yaH paThet raama caritam sarva paapaiH pramucyate || 1-1-98
"This Ramayana is holy, sin-eradicating, merit-endowing, and conformable with the teachings of all Vedas... and whoever reads this Legend of Rama, he will be verily liberated of all his sins... [1-1-98]
etat aakhyaanam aayuSyam paThan raamaayaNam naraH |
sa putra pautraH sa gaNaH pretya svarge mahiiyate || 1-1-99

"Any man who reads this lifespan-enriching narrative of actuality, Ramayana, the peregrination of Rama, he will be enjoying worldly pleasures with his sons and grand sons and with assemblages of kinfolks, servants etc., as long as he is in this mortal world and on his demise, he will be adored in heaven... [1-1-99]
"A man reading this Ramayana happens to be a Brahman, one from teaching-class, he obtains excellency in his speech, and should he be Kshatriya person from ruling-class, he obtains land-lordship, and should he be Vyshya person from trading-class, he accrues monetary-gains, and should he be a Shudra person from working class, he acquires his personal excellence..." Thus Sage Narada gave a gist of Ramayana to Sage-poet Valmiki. [1-1-100]
There godly sage Valmiki saw a couple of lovely krouncha birds, in the vicinity of that river's foreshore, flying there about in togetherness, [and of course, fearless of any calamity,] and calling charmingly [1-2-9]
A tribal hunter with all his evil intent, as he is an enemy of foresters, killed the male one of them the couple of birds, while Valmiki is looking on. [1-2-10]
maa nishhaada pratiSThaamtva | magamaH shaashvatiiH samaaH |
yat krau~Ncha mithunaat eka | mavadhiiH kaama mohitam || 1-2-15
"Oh! Ill-fated Hunter, by which reason you have killed one male bird of the couple, when it is in its lustful passion, thereby you will get an ever-lasting reputation for ages to come..." [1-2-15]
"This utterance of mine has emerged out of anguished annoyance, and it is well- arranged with letters metrically posited, tuneful and rhythmical to be sung with string instrument, and hence, this shall be a verse, not otherwise..." [1-2-18]
Then, Brahma smilingly spoke to that eminent saint Valmiki, "But, what that is composed is a verse only... and there is no need to think through... [1-2-30b-31a]
"You shall narrate the legend of Rama, the virtuous, intellectual and an intrepid one, and a godlike person in this world as well, as you have heard it from sage Narada. [1-2-32b-33a]
"The adventures of valorous Rama along with Lakshmana, and the misadventures of demons, known or unknown in every detail, and even the plight of Vaidehi which is either revealed or un-revealed so far, and whatever legend that has happened, all that will also be known to you, even if it were to be unknown, as yet... [1-2-33b-35a]
"You shall versify the heart pleasing and merit-yielding legend of Rama, and not a single word of yours will be unfounded in this epic... [1-2-35b-36a]
"As long as the mountains and even rivers flourish on the surface of the earth, so long the legend of Ramayana will flourish in this world... [1-2-36b-37a]
"And as long as Rama's legend authored by you flourishes...till then you will flourish in heavenly, in netherworlds, and even in my abode, namely Abode of Brahma... [1-2-37]
Discerning all of Ramayana in its actuality by his yogic prowess that highly intellectual Valmiki pioneered to author all of the legend of Rama, for Rama is a delighter of all in all worlds, and whose legend is abounding with the real functional qualities of earthly pleasures and prosperities, and which clearly elaborates the meaning of probity and its operative qualities, and thus this legend is like an ocean replete with such gems called thoughts, and an ear-pleasing legend, as well. [1-3-7-7-8]
"My mind is tumultuous without quietude for I have no sons... for that reason, I wish perform Aswametha, Vedic Horse Ritual... this is my thinking... [1-8-8]
Keeping Rishyasringa at the helm of affairs those eminent Brahmans commenced, ashva medha , the Horse-ritual of that noble-souled Dasharatha. [1-14-2]
The oblations addressed to Indra are well given as ordained, and the flawless king Dasharatha also crushed the Soma creeper to squeeze Soma juice, and thus the mid-day savana ritual has come to pass according to sequence. [1-14-6]
To that ritual of that great-souled Dasharatha masses of men and women have arrived from different countries, and they are all well-pleased with the sumptuous food and drink supplied. [1-14-16]
Day by day those expert Brahmans have performed all ritual works as encouraged by Vashishta, and others and as contained in scriptures. [1-14-20]
When the time came to stake wooden ritual posts, six posts of bilwa wood, six posts of khadira wood, and further the same number of posts of parnina wood are staked. One post of sleshmaataka wood and two of devadaaru wood as stipulated are staked. Then the distance between each post is maintained at the length of extended arms. [1-14-22,23]
They are altogether twenty-one posts, each post is twenty-one cubits in height, and each is decoratively clothed with each cloth. [1-14-25]
Carpenters have carved all the posts well, and built them strongly with octahedral surfaces that are smoothened, and thereby they are implanted procedurally. [1-14-26]
Those posts draped in cloths and worshipped with flowers and perfumery are irradiant, and they shone forth like the constellation of Seven Sages in the sky. [1-14-27]
The bricks for Altar of Fire are well designed and made according to rules and standard measurements. The Brahmans who are experts in the architecture of laying Fire Altar, by calculating the ritual field with a one-ply rope and decide where and how the that shall be, the Altar of Fire is layered well with bricks in that ritual. [1-14-28]
That Altar of Fire of that King, the Lion, is layered by expert Brahmans in the shape of an eagle with golden wings, with its size being three folds bigger than the altars of other rituals, thus it has eighteen separators, and fire is laid on it. [1-14-29]
In that ritual animals, serpents and birds designated to such and such deities are readied according to the scriptural directives. [1-14-30]
The sages have arranged those animals that are to be there in animal sacrifices, like horse and other aquatic animals, in that ritual according to scriptures. [1-14-31]
Three hundred animals are tied to the ritual posts, along with the gemlike best ritual horse of that King Dasharatha. [1-14-32]
With great delight coming on her Queen Kausalya reverently made circumambulations to the horse, and symbolically killed the horse with three knives. [1-14-33]
patatriNaa tadaa saardham susthitena ca cetasaa |
avasat rajaniim ekaam kausalyaa dharma kaamyayaa || 1-14-34
Queen Kausalya desiring the results of ritual disconcertedly resided one night with that horse that flew away like a bird. [1-14-34]
Thus, the officiating priests of the ritual, namely hota, adhwaryu and udgaata have received in their hand the Crowned Queen, the neglected wife, and a concubine of the king, next as a symbolic donation in the ritual by the performer, the king. [1-14-35]
Then the priest, one with controlled senses and rich in scriptural wealth, took up the omentum [fat] of the horse and cooked it as per scriptures while dropping into the altar of fire to bake as a food to the celestials. [1-14-36]
The king Dasharatha smelt the smell of smoke as per time and procedure to cleanse his own sin. [1-14-37]
Those remaining body parts that horse are there, the sixteen officiating priests have procedurally oblated all of them into fire. [1-14-38]
In other rituals the oblations will be offered into sacrificial fire with spoon-like sticks of plaksha tree, but in Horse-sacrifice ritual they are offered through the vetasa creeper, a rattan plant, cane. [1-14-39]
The Horse Ritual is to be performed for three days as laid down in kalpa sutra-s, the rules governing such rituals, and by brahmaNa-s, the penultimate parts of Veda-s, and the one performed on the first day is called chatuhSToma ritual. [1-14-40]
The ritual on the second day is called ukthyam, and the next one performed on third day is called atiraatra. These apart many of the preordained rituals are performed there in that ritual as envisaged in scriptures. [1-14-41]
The horse-ritual is conducted only for three days. But Dasharatha got it performed with more variously connected rituals, in all his eagerness to appease gods for progeny.
The rituals called jyothiSToma, aayuSi, and atiraatra rituals are performed. And also rituals of great kind like abhijit, vishwajit, aptoryaama are performed. [1-14-42]
As the promoter of his own dynasty that king Dasharatha donated eastern side to hota, western to adhvaryu, and southern to brahma. And to udgaata northern side is given in donation. These were the donations stipulated in that great ritual, ashwamedha, by the Self-Created Brahma from earlier times. [1-14-44,43]
"What is the idea to eliminate that demon's chief Ravana, oh, gods, adopting which strategy I will have to eliminate that thorn in the side of sages?" Thus Vishnu asked the gods. [1-16-2]
Asked thus all the gods said to that sempiternal Vishnu, "on assuming a human form, eliminate Ravana in a war." [1-16-3]
"Satisfied with his ascesis Brahma gave boon to that demon that he shall have no fear for his life from many kinds of beings, excepting humans, because that demon indeed slighted humans earlier at the time of bestowing boon. [1-16-5, 6a]
"Thus, on getting boon from the Forefather Brahma he has become arrogant and torturing the three worlds, and he is even abducting women. As such, oh, enemy destroyer Vishnu, his elimination is envisaged through humans alone." So said gods to Vishnu. [1-16-6b, 7]
iti etat vacanam shrutvaa suraaNaam viSNuH aatmavaan |
pitaram rocayaamaasa tadaa dasharatham nR^ipam || 1-16-8
On hearing that speech of gods said that way, he that kind-hearted Vishnu then chose Dasharatha as his father in human world. [1-16-8]
During that time the great resplendent king and an enemy subduer Dasharatha is performing putrakaameSTi ritual, desiring progeny as he is sonless. [1-16-9]
On taking a decision Vishnu took leave of Forefather Brahma, and vanished while he is still being extolled by gods and sages. [1-16-10]
Then, from Fire of Altar Dasharatha's ritual there emerged a greatly vigorous and energetic Divine Being with an unparalleled resplendence, called yajna puruSa. [1-16-11]
He is clad in black and red garments and his face is red and his voice resembled the drumbeat. His moustache and hairdo are soft like that of a lion's mane. [1-16-12]
That divine person on observing king Dasharatha said these words "oh, king, you may know me as the being sent by Prajapati." [1-16-16]
There after, king Dasharatha greeted that divine being with palms adjoining and said in reply, "oh, god, welcome to you, and what shall I do for you?" [1-16-17]
Then again, that divine being sent by Prajapati said these words, "oh, king, now you have obtained this dessert in golden vessel as you have propitiated gods. [1-16-18]
"Oh, tigerly king, take this dessert prepared by divinities, this is a blessed dessert that enriches progeny and health. [1-16-19]
"Oh, king, let this be consumed" saying so he further said, "for which purpose you have performed this ritual that childbearing will be fructified in your wives by bearing sons, hence give this among your eligible wives." So said the divine being to Dasharatha. [1-16-20]
Agreeing to that the king wholeheartedly took that god-given golden vessel full with divine food. [1-16-21]
With high ecstasy Dasharatha revered that Ritual Being, the Prajapati Purusha or yaj~na purusha , an astonishing and delightful being in his appearance, and performed circumambulations around him. [1-16-22]
Then Dasharatha on entering palace chambers spoke this to queen Kausalya, "Receive this dessert to beget your son." [1-16-26]
The king then gave half of the dessert to queen Kausalya, and he gave half of the half, i.e., one fourth to queen Sumitra. And to Kaikeyi he gave half of the remaining half, i.e., one eight of the dessert, with a desire to beget sons. Then thinking for a while gave the remaining, i.e., one-eighth portion again to queen Sumitra. Thus, the king distributed the dessert to his wives differently. [1-16-27, 28, 29]
On getting the dessert all of those best ladies of the king, whose hearts are exuberant with happiness, deemed it as a reward. [1-16-30]
Hearing those mournful words relating to the death of his father, spoken by Bharata, Rama fainted away.
Seeing Rama lying on the earth, has the lord of the earth, like an elephant crushed by a land slide on a bank where he was sleeping, those brother along with Seetha approached him from all sides and weepingly sprinkled water on him.
That slender-waisted Seetha whose limbs are flawless, whose complexion is like purified gold, and who is presently culling flowers is highly gladdened to observe the Golden Deer that is brightened in one flank with the colour of gold and the other is silvery, and she shouted for attention of her husband, and even that of Lakshmana who is presently weaponed. [3-43-1, 2]
"Oh, noble prince, come here," thus she called her husband and peered at the deer, and again she called, "really come with your younger brother quickly," and again gazed at the deer, and thus she oftentimes called and oftentimes saw the deer fondly. [3-43-3]
"Standing on the sky I can lift up the earth with two of my arms, I can completely gulp down any ocean, standing in war I can even put the Death to death. [3-49-3]
"Indeed, I can split the Sun and splinter the earth with my splitting arrows, oh, mad woman, I can assume any form as I wish, and endow any wish you wish, such as I am, I must be your husband, behold me." So said Ravana when revealing his real nature. [3-49-4]
"Ultimately you have a much-lauded husband in me, as such you oblige me, and I will not cause any displeasure to you at any point of time. Let your heart refrain from that humanly Rama and you start bringing round your heart towards me. [3-49-12, 13a]
"Oh, halfwitted lady, you who deem yourself a highly intellectual lady, listen, that mindless Rama who just by a word of a woman forebode kingdom along with all of his amiable people, and lives in this forest where the predators are on the prowl, thus he who is spurned off from kingdom, ungainful are his purposes, and who is even a short-lived human, I wonder by what merits you are impassioned for such a Rama?" Thus Ravana spoke to Seetha. [3-49-13b, 14, 15a]
On saying that sentence to Maithili, who by herself is a nice talker and who is a proper one for addressing with nice words, that verily evil-minded demon Ravana maddened by lust drew nigh of Seetha and grabbed her, as Budha, the Jupiter grabs the Star Rohini in firmament. [3-49-15b, 16]
He that Ravana grabbed the lotus-eyed Seetha on lifting her up with his left hand at her plait of hair at nape, and with his right hand at her thighs. [3-49-17]
Then the miracle-air-chariot of Ravana which is miraculously designed to appear and disappear at the wish of its master, yoked with miraculous mules, and built with its golden wheels and parts, appeared afore Ravana braying noisily. [3-49-19]
Then he whose voice is strident that Ravana lifted her up by her waist and got Vaidehi up on the air-chariot intimidating her with bitter words. [3-49-20]
Agonised with anguish when gone into the captivity of Ravana, she that glorious Seetha wailed loudly for Rama saying 'oh, Rama,' which Rama has gone deep into the forest by then. [3-49-21]
Ravana who is infatuated with lust picked her up, which lady is disinclined for any kind of sensuality and who is verily writhing like the wife of King Cobra, and then he surged skyward and flew off with her in his air-chariot. [3-49-22]
While that lord of demons is abducting her in the skyway, Seetha became frenzied with bewildered faculties and then bawled stridently like a hysterical person. [3-49-23]
"Haa, greatly dextrous Lakshmana... oh, rejoicer of your mentor... you are incognisant of me who am being abducted by this demon who is a dissembler. [3-49-24]
"Oh, Raghava, you have relinquished your high-life, happiness, and riches for the sake of righteousness, and though you avowed to protect your observants, you are unobservant of me who am being abducted by the unrighteousness itself. [3-49-5]
"Oh, enemy-inflamer Rama, I reckon that you are an absolute controller of uncontrollable beings, I wonder why you are not controlling this kind of sinner, Ravana, indeed?" This is how Seetha started her cry in wilderness. [3-49-26]
"An honest wife of a glorious one who aspires nothing but honesty, such a wife of Rama as I am, I am being abducted, thus the aspiration of Kaikeyi and her kinfolk has now come true. Oh, god!" Thus, she soliloquised. [3-49-29]
"An honest wife of a glorious one who aspires nothing but honesty, such a wife of Rama as I am, I am being abducted, thus the aspiration of Kaikeyi and her kinfolk has now come true. Oh, god!" Thus, she soliloquised. [3-49-29]
"I pray you who are with the bustle of swans and saarasa water birds, oh, River Godavari, you promptly tell Rama that Ravana is thieving Seetha. [3-49-31]
"I also venerate you, the sylvan deities that travel in this forest with diverse trees or, those that abide on the treetops, you may please inform my husband that I am being stolen. [3-49-32]
"Or, over there, some few beings that are living over there on the ground below, I seek shelter of all the flocks of birds and hoards of animals, and I pray you to convey this news. [3-49-33]
"Inform my husband about his dear and loftier wife than his lives, saying that, 'helpless Seetha is stolen by Ravana.' [3-49-34]
"If that ambidextrous Rama comes to know about me, even if I am taken to heavens, or, even if I am impounded by Death, that great-mighty Rama brings me back, on aggressing against all of the gods in heaven, or, against Yama, the Death God." Thus, she appealed to one and all, but in vain. [3-49-35]
"Oh, Jatayu, everything about my abduction shall be narrated to Rama, or to Lakshmana, as it has happened in its entirety." Thus Seetha supplicated Jatayu. [3-49-40]
That prince Rama whom agony and anguish are distressing has become anxious in his mien, and he again drifted into a dire desperation while despairing his brother Lakshmana. [3-63-1]
"I am second to none among the blameworthy wrongdoers on this earth, thus I deem, and indeed woe followed by woe are getting at me in seriation to burst my heart and mind... [3-63-3]
"I might have definitely, habitually, and desirably committed damnable deeds in my previous births, and now the result of those impious deeds is very much ripened and has fallen on me, whereby I am entering misery after misery... [3-63-4]
"I am deprived of the kingdom, departed from my own people, mainly Seetha, my father departed and I am detached from my mother, and Lakshmana, when all these setbacks are very deeply thought over they are replenishing the haste of my agony... [3-63-5]
"All this sadness of mine has silenced physically and there is some peace on coming to these desolate forests, in association of Seetha, but with the dissociation of Seetha misery is again upshot, as with fire which flares up in a flash when fuel is added... [3-63-6]
"My noblewoman might be abducted by a demon, and on reaching the sky that lady who converses with a sweet voice might have wept a lot fearfully, and it is definite that she must have shouted a lot, untunefully... [3-63-7]
"Those two roundish bosoms of my ladylove which always deserved the application of pleasantly looking red-sandalwood's paste might definitely be unshiny, as they might be bedaubed with muddy blood when they are extricated from her body for devouring. [3-63-8]
"She has a sweet, softish, and very clear talkativeness on her lips. That visage with such lips is crowned with a hairdo with hair lumped together and plaited, such as her visage is, it must have become unshiny on her going into the repression of demon, as with an unshiny moon when repressed in the mouth of eclipsing planet Raahu, it is definite... [3-63-9]
"The contours of the neck of that strait-laced ladylove of mine are always worthy for necklaces and chain-wears. The bloodthirsty demons would have indeed mangled that neck in a secluded place and they might have drunk her blood, it is definite... [3-63-10]
"While I was away from her in this uninhibited forest demons would have forcibly hauled her up when they are abducting that lady with broad-bright eyes, and she would have discordantly shrieked out like a piteous she-dove, it is definite... [3-63-11]
"Sitting very close to me on this stone's surface, oh, Lakshmana, she that well-mannered Seetha with bright smiles was speaking to you verbosely with all smiles... [3-63-12]
"Among rivers this Godavari is the best and it is an all the time cherished river to my ladylove, and I think she would have gone thereunto. But, at anytime she did not go there, singly... [3-63-13]
"Or, that lotus-faced, lotus-petal eyed Seetha has gone straight to bring lotuses! Nay, that idea itself is incongruous, for she never goes to get lotuses, indeed without me... [3-63-14]
"But has she really gone to this stand of thicket which is with flowered trees and with birds of divers kind! Nay, that thought also is incongruent, because she as a timid one is much scared of solitude... [3-63-15]
"Oh, Sun, you are the knower of performed and unperformed deeds in the world, a wittnesser of good and bad deeds in the world, tell me, who am woefully writhing, to where my ladylove strolled, or is she stolen... [3-63-16]
"Oh, Air, whatsoever is there in the world, wheresoever it might be, or whensoever it might have happened, and whichsoever it might be, and whencesoever it might exist, that cannot possibly be unknown to you. Hence, tell me of the lady from noble heritage... is she stolen, or slain, or strayed her steps..." Thus Rama begged of the Eternals for locating Seetha. [3-63-17]
"Keep your intellect and wisdom firm, and express all your intents rightly in your body language in all your undertakings... certainly, a king getting into unintelligence cannot command all his subjects...” So said Hanuma to Sugreeva. [4-2-18]
Casting off his monkey's semblance Air-god's son Hanuma attained the persona of an ascetic, for that monkey is incredulous in mind about Raghava-s. [4-3-2]
"You two look like kingly saints, or deities by your build, ascetics with blest vows, but with ideal complexions... how come you arrived at this countryside scaring the herds of animals and other inhabitants of this forest... [4-3-5b, 6]
Lt. Tara came back in a trice fetching that litter of the dead, getting it carried by gritty and suitable Vanara-s. [4-25-21]
That palanquin is having a majestic throne and in similarity it is like a divine chariot which is adorned and beautified with figurines of birds and trees in high relief. From all over it is well set in with strikingly carved figures of foot soldiers, and it is like an aircraft of the gifted souls, namely siddha-s, with grills and ventilators. Well seamed-in are its parts and also spacious it is, and well crafted by the crafty craftsmen it has wooden play-hills carved in its walls, and finishing touches with a fine artistry of polishing are given to that palanquin. It is elaborated with best ornaments and strings of pearls, gems, beads and the like, and even with amazing flowery-tassels. Its cabin's roof is covered with an ornamental woodcraft of red-sandalwood. It is well covered over with lots of flowers, and in its shade it is like a tender sun, while garlands of red-lotuses are further brightening it. And Lt. Tara brought such a litter of the dead. [4-25-22, 23, 24, 25, 26]
On seeing such a sort of palanquin Rama said to Lakshmana, "Let Vali be taken away quickly and funeral ceremony be undertaken." [4-25-27]
Lady Tara and all other female Vanara-s, whose husband is dead, followed the funeral procession wailing in a pathetic tone. [4-25-35b, 36a]
On giving fire to the pyre procedurally, then Angada with dismayed senses performed circumambulations in an anticlockwise direction to his father, who is voyaging on a remote avenue. [4-25-50]
On cremating Vali procedurally those best fly-jumpers arrived at the propitious river with auspicious waters to offer water oblations to the departed soul. [4-25-51]
On cremating Vali of lofty aplomb and manifest-renown and whom the arrow of that Rama, the best of Ikshvaku dynasty has eliminated, Sugreeva then approached that Rama, who is with Lakshmana at his side, and whose flair equals a flaming fire. [4-25-54]
Then that enemy-inflamer Rama happily gave his ring that is shining forth with his own name engraved as sign to Hanuma, as a remembrancer for princess Seetha. [4-44-12]
"By this emblematic ring, oh, best monkey, Janaka's daughter Seetha identifies you to have reached her from my proximity, without apprehension. [4-44-13]
On taking the ring that foremost monkey Hanuma kept it on his own head, and making palm-fold he reverenced the feet of Rama, and then that noteworthy monkey started off. [4-44-15]
That Hanuma the courageous one, the son of Lord Vayu, saw the great aerial plane standing in the middle of that building with a surprising hue, due to diamonds, and gems decorated by series of refined gold.
That plane shone like symbol for solar path standing in the aerial path obtaining the sky. Manufactured by Vishvakarma himself and praised by him as one without comparison in beauty.
In that plane there is not even a small thing that is not made with great effort, in that there is nothing without the best diamonds, those characteristics definitely are not in Devas also, in that there is nothing that is not of great significance.
Hanuma saw that aerial plane which rakshasas who were great eaters, with a face beautified by earnings, who roamed around in the sky and thousands of genii with round eyes, crooked eyes and wide eyes capable of great speed carrying it.
That Hanuma the best among Vanara warriors saw there a best plane with the name of Pushpaka with a more beautiful appearance than a group of flowers during spring, a more attractive appearance than even the spring season.
Hearing Hanuma's words, Seetha like the daughter of a god, slowly spoke the following words, strung together with alphabets of tears: "You tell this (following) excellent thing as a token of remembrance to my beloved husband."
"There is a place inhabited by sages at a hillock in the north-eastern It was bountiful with roots fruits and water. In that place, while we were residing in a hermitage of sages, on a day long ago, we were strolling in water in parts of groves with various kinds of flowers of perfume in that hillock. Your thereupon became wet and sat at my proximity."
"O lord of the earth! For my sake you hurled a Brahma's missile even at a crow. Why are you forgiving the one who has taken me away from you?"
"If the valiant Rama has any haste in my case, why does he not destroy the demons with his sharp arrows?!
"There is not doubt that I would have committed a great sin, for which reason those two brothers Rama and Lakshmana the tormentators of enemies, even when capable , are neglecting me."
"O Seetha! Rama has grown averse to everything else, caused by grief towards you. I swear it to you by truth. When Rama is overpowered by grief; Lakshmana too gets tormented by grief."
Then, untying the bright devine jewel for her head tied in her garment, Seetha gave it to Hanuma, saying that it might be handed over to Rama.
“Let me at least embrace this magnanimous Hanuman since in the present circumstances, this is all that is easily obtained from me.”
Thus saying, Rama vibrating with joy, clasped Hanuman in his arms who, master of himself, his mission fulfilled, had returned.
“Even before arrows resembling thunder bolts and with a speed equal to wind, dispatched by Rama, take away the heads of chiefs of demons, give back Sita to Rama.”
“O, king! Either Kumbhakarna or Indrajit and either Mahaparsva or Mahodara and either Nikumbha or Kumbha or even Atikaya cannot withstand Rama in battle.”
“The Ocean is not appearing himself before me on kind words. O, Lakshmana! Bring the bow and the serpentine arrows. I shall dry up this ocean, so that our monkeys can cross it by feet.”
“Being provoked now, I will shake this ocean, even if it is unshakable. I will force the ocean, which is demarcated by banks and agitated with thousands of waves, bereft of a boundary, by my arrows. I will agitate the great ocean, thronged with great demons.”
Speaking as aforesaid, Rama with his eyes made larger by anger and wielding a bow with his hand, became dreadful to look at, as a blazing fire at the end of the world.
Swaying his terrific bow and making the earth tremble by his violence Rama released the arrow resembling a powerful thunderbolt of Indra. (god of celestials).
Those excellent arrows having a great speed and ablaze by their splendor, penetrated the waters of the ocean, striking the water- snakes with terror.
The great jerk of water with fishes and alligators of the ocean, together with the resonance of the wind became very much dreadful.
Immediately that great ocean, became shaken by the cluster of huge waves enveloped by a multitude of conches in its rolling waves and a smoke came out.
Sea-snakes having brilliant faces and glittering eyes and the very valiant demons residing in nethermost subterranean region of the sea, were perturbed.
Thousands of waves, so large resembling Vindhya and Mandhara mountains, jumped up from the sea with its crocodiles and sea monsters.
Seetha saw the illusory head and bow. She heard Ravana narrating about Rama’s friendly relationship with Sugreeva, as earlier apprised by Hanuman. Recognizing that head as that of Rama, with a proof resembling her husband’s eyes, facial complexion, hair, expanse of his forehead and the beautiful jewel worn on the top of his head, she was very much afflicted with sorrow, cried like an osprey and abused Kaikeyi who was the originator of the present calamity (as follows):
Kaikeyi! Be a fulfiller of your craving! This Rama, causing a joy to the family, has been slain. The entire race has been destroyed by a woman of squabbling nature.
"You gave clothes made of bark to the venerable Rama and sent him on exile to the forest along with me. What harm has he done to you?"
“O, Rama! My mother- in-law Kausalya who cherished you tenderly has been left without a son and resembles a cow that has lost its calf.”
“O, prince! Why don’t you look at me? Why don’t you reply me, a wife who lived with you together since the time of obtaining me as a girl by you as a boy.”
"The strong and faultless prince Rama was killed in a small puddle, after crossing the ocean, for the cause of me, an unworthy woman.”
“O, Ravana! Join my head with his head and my body with his body. I shall go along the path of my magnanimous Lord.”
Soon after the departure of Ravana, the illusory head and bow had vanished.
“Beholding Rama and Lakshmana fallen under the sway of death on the battle-field today, finding no other haven and hoping for nothing else, the large-eyed Seetha will voluntarily seek refuge with me!”
Ravana the king of demons, thrilled with rapture, caused Lanka to be garlanded with flags and banners and arranged a proclamation to be made in Lanka announcing that Rama and Lakshmana had been slain by Indrajit in battle.
Then, Seetha beheld those two warriors Rama and Lakshmana lying unconscious on the ground on a bed of arrows, their limbs pierced with arrows, riddled with weapons, their armour shattered, their bows cast aside at a distance and their entire body transfixed by darts.
“Finding both of us fallen unconscious without displaying any joy or anger as also having desisted from fighting, Indrajit will certainly return to Lanka, after having obtained laurels of battle in its beginning itself.”
Thereafter, Rama and Lakshmana there became struck by a multitude of arrows of Indrajit. That leader of demons also there, causing affliction to both of them, roared with a thrill of rapture in battle.
Thus causing the army of monkeys along with Rama and Lakshmana to become despondent in battle, that Indrajit, getting eulogized by the demons, quickly reached the city of Lanka which was being protected by Ravana’s arms. Then, Indrajit cheerfully informed all that had happened, to his father.
Thus causing the army of monkeys along with Rama and Lakshmana to become despondent in battle, that Indrajit, getting eulogized by the demons, quickly reached the city of Lanka which was being protected by Ravana’s arms. Then, Indrajit cheerfully informed all that had happened, to his father.
After having been struck by Brahma’s missile released by Indrajit, Rama and Lakshmana became unconscious. Sixty-seven crores of monkeys fainted. Hanuma and Vibhishana, however in consciousness, roared about in the battle-front with torches in their hands, making a search of Jambavan. They find Jambavan. Jambavan requests Hanuma to proceed to Himalayas, by crossing over the ocean and to bring four important herbs, viz. Mrita Sanjivani, Vishalya karani, Suvarna karani and Sandhani; so as to bring succour to the fainted army of monkeys. Hanuma begins his journey to Himalayas and reaches Mount Rishabha, where the wonderful herbs exist. Hanuma searches for the four wonderful herbs. But the herbs appear invisible for him. Hanuma uproots the mountain clothed with the four celestial herbs and carries it along with him. Inhaling the odour of those herbs, Rama, Lakshmana and all the monkeys regain their normal health.
Then, in the battle-front, Rama and Lakshmana were knocked down senseless. The army of monkey-leaders fainted. Sugreeva, Nila, Angada and Jambavan could not understand what to do.
“This excellent missile, presided over by Brahma the creator, with never-failing strength, was given to Indrajit by Brahma. Honouring it, Rama and Lakshmana the princes fell down in battle. This not a time for despondency here.”
Then, the intelligent Hanuma, the son of wind-god, paying honour to the missile presided over by Brahma and hearing the words of Vibhishana, spoke the following words:
“Let us restore to confidence whosoever is in this army of energetic monkeys, after having been struck by the missile.”
Both those valiant ones, Hanuma and Vibhishana, together at that time of the night, roamed about in the battle-front, with torches in their hands.
Hanuma and Vibhishana saw the battle-field, covered on all sides, with mountain-sized monkeys fallen with heir tails, arms, thighs, feet, fingers and heaps of heads fractured with blood oozing from their limbs and urine flowing out. The earth was also covered with flaming weapons fallen around.
Vibhishana and Hanuma saw Sugreeva, Angada, Nila, Sharabha, Gandhamadana, Gavaksha, Sushena, Vegadarshi, Mainda, Nala, Jyotimukha and a monkey called Dvivida, who were struck down on the battle-field.
Sixty seven crores of powerful monkeys were struck down by the cherished missile of Brahma, the self-born creator, in the fifth and last period* of the day.
“Cheer up the martial warriors of both monkeys and bears. Heal Rama and Lakshmana from their arrow-wounds.”
“O Hanuma! You ought to go to Himalaya, the foremost of mountains, by traveling higher and higher over the large ocean.”
“O annihilator of enemies! Thereafter, you will see there the Mount Rishabha, the excellent mountain and the very much powerful peak of Kailasa, with a golden hue.”
“O valiant Hanuma! In the midst of these two peaks, you will see a blazing and unequally brilliant herbal mountain, containing all kinds of herbs.”
“O foremost of monkeys! Sprouted on the head of that mountain, are four blazing herbs. You can see them, illuminating the ten quarters.”
“You can see there, Mrita Sanjivani (capable of restoring the dead to life), Vishalyakarani (capable of extracting weapons and healing all wounds inflicted by weapons), Suvarnakarani (restoring the body to its original complexion) and Sandhani, the great herb (capable of joining severed limbs or fractured bone).”
“O Hanuma! Bring all those herbs quickly. O son of wind-god! Bring succour to the monkeys, by injecting lives into them.”
Hearing the words of Jambavan, Hanuma the son of wind-god was infused with animated strength, as the ocean gets animated with the force of the wind.
Standing on the summit of Trikuta mountain and pressing the foremost of mountains (with his feet), that valiant Hanuma appeared like a second mountain.
Then, increasingly pressed and bent by Hanuma’s feet, that mountain was not able to bear its weight and sank.
The trees on that mountain, pressed by Hanuma, fell to the ground and caught fire due to rapidity of Hanuma. Its peaks also got broken.
The monkeys were unable to stand on that excellent mountain, which started to reel, while being pressed severely by Hanuma, as the trees standing on it and the rocks got broken.
Confounded with panic, the City of Lanka, whose principal gates were broken, whose houses and town-gates were shattered, appeared as though dancing at night.
Pressing hard the mountain, Hanuma equal to a mountain, caused the earth along with the ocean to shake.
From that mountain, Hanuma then ascended Mount Malaya, appearing as Mounts Meru and Mandara, filled with several kinds of cascades, full of many trees and creepers, having Kamala and Utpala lotuses blooming, visited by celestials and celestial musicians, having a height of sixty Yojanas (four hundred eighty miles), frequented by Vidyodharas, a number of sages and Apsaras the nymphs, filled with various kinds of animal-troupes and illuminated by many caves, Hanuma grew his body, appearing like a cloud, bewildering Yakshas, Gandharvas and Kinnaras.
Pressing the mountain hard with his feet, opening his terrific mouth which shone like a submarine fire and frightening the demons, Hanuma roared loudly.
Hanuma went to Mount Himalaya, the foremost of mountains, embellished with various kinds of cascades, many kinds of caves, mountain-streams and summits resembling an assemblage of white clouds as also many kinds of trees.
Having approached that great mountain having excellent overbearing summits, he saw great holy hermitages, inhabited by a multitude of divine sages.
He saw the abode of Brahma the lord of creation, Kailasa the abode of Shiva the lord of dissolution, the abode of Indra the lord of celestials, the arrow-discharging place of Rudra, the worshipping place of Hayagriva, the horse-faced form of Vishnu, the shining place at which Brahma’s head fell down, the sun-god and Kimkaras.
He saw the abode of Agni the fire-god, the abode of Kubera (son of Visrava) shining like the sun, the spot where the sun was tied down, the abode of Brahma, the abode of bow belonging to Lord Shiva and the novel of the earth (containing the hole through which one can enter Patala the nethermost subterranean region).
He saw the gigantic Mount Kailasa, the rock of Mount Himalaya (on which Lord Shiva is believed to have practiced austerities and abstract meditation) and Mount Rishabha, the lofty golden mountain, which was highly illumined by the flaming herbs and the lord of mountains on which all types of herbs grew.
That Hanuma, the great monkey, having crossed thousands of yojanas, walked around that mountain, searching for the heavenly herbs.
Knowing then that somebody was coming in search of them, all the distinguished herbs on that mountain disappeared from Hanuma’s view.
In not seeing them thus, that great souled Hanuma was enraged. He made a loud noise in anger unable to bear it, Hanuma with his eyes as red as the fire, spoke the following words to the prince of mountains.
“O prince of mountains! Is it quite sure that you have not shown any compassion for Rama? If it is so, overcome by the strength of my arms; find yourself shattered to pieces today.”
Fiercely seizing hold of the top of that mountain, furnished with thousands of minerals, with its trees, elephants and gold, with the projections of mountain shattered and the crest of its plateau set on fire, at once sprang up with speed.
Having uprooted that mountain, frightening the worlds together with the leaders of celestials and demons inhabiting them and being praised by many aerial beings, Hanuma sprang up into the sky and proceeded expeditiously with the terrible speed of Garuda the eagle.
Grasping that mountain-peak, radiant as the sun, that Hanuma who resembled the sun, having reached the orbit of the sun, shone as a second sun (as sun’s image) in the vicinity of the sun.
In the sky, with that mountain in his hand, that Hanuma the offspring of the wind-god, who resembled a mountain himself, appeared mostly like Vishnu with his flaming discuss with its thousand edges holding his hand.
Then, seeing Hanuma, the monkeys made a noise. Seeing them, Hanuma in turn roared in delight. Hearing their awfully excessive noises the inhabitants of Lanka roared still more terribly.
Thereupon, the great souled Hanuma descended on that prince of mountains (Trikuta) in the midst of that army of monkeys. Having offered salutation to the illustrious monkeys there with his head bent low, he then embraced Vibhishana
By inhaling that fragrance of those great herbs, both Rama and Lakshamana became healed of their wounds then and there. Other monkey-warriors rose up.
By the fragrance of those most powerful herbs, all those monkey-warriors who were earlier dead were healed momentarily of their wounds, relieved of their pain, even as those who are asleep fully get up at the close of night.
From the day the monkeys and demons began to fight in Lanka, from that day onwards, under the orders of Ravana, all those demons, who were being killed by the foremost of monkeys were being thrown away into the sea as and when they were killed, merely or the sake of honour (so that their number may not be known to the monkeys).
Then, Hanuma the son of wind-god, with a great speed, carried away that mountain of herbs quickly back to the mountains of Himalayas and again joined Rama. (VI.74)
Placing an illusory live image of Seetha in his chariot, Indrajit along with his army enters the battle-field. Hanuma with his army of monkeys march in front to face Indrajit in battle. While Hanuma and his army are watching, Indrajit pulls Seetha by her hair and unsheathed his sword. Indrajit kills the illusory living image of Seetha, with his sharp sword.
"O evil minded one! Born in a dynasty of Brahmanical sages, but belonging to demoniacal race, you touched a lock of her hair, for your hair, for your own ruin."
"O pitiless one! Seetha came away from her house, from her kingdom and from her huband's (Rama's) protection. What wrong has Seetha done to you, that you are killing her?"
"O monkey! After killing her, I will make a short work of Rama, Lakshmana, yourself too, Sugreeva and that vulgar Vibhishana thereafter."
Having spoken thus to Hanuma, Indrajit personally killed that illusory Seetha, who ahd been sobbing all the while, with his sharp-edged sword.
After killing that woman, Indrajit told Hanuma as follows: "See, I killed Rama's wife with my weapon. This Seetha is dead and all your labour is in vain."
Indrajit goes back to Lanka and brings another chariot with him. He attacks the monkeys severely. The monkeys seek refuge in Lakshmana. Indrajit and Lakshmana continue a fierce battle with their bow and arrows. Lakshmana destroys Indrajit’s chariot. Indrajit strikes three arrows in Lakshmana’s forehead and Lakshmana strikes five arrows on Indrajit’s face. When Indrajit strikes Vibhishana with arrows, Vibhishana kills Indrajit’s horses. Fitting a missile presided over by Indra the lord of celestials, Lakshmana addressed a prayer on Rama and discharged it towards Indrajit. Indrajit’s head gets chopped off and falls to the ground. Witnessing Indrajit’s death, all the monkey-chiefs, Vibhishana, Hanuma and Jambavan applaud Lakshmana.
Thereupon, Matali refreshed the memory of Rama as follows: "O the valiant one! Why are you still carrying out the battle with Ravana as though you are unaware (of how to dispose of him)?
"O lord! You can employ a mystic missile presided over by Brahma the lord of creation. The time for his destruction has come now, as expressed by the celestials."
 Then, the valiant Rama, who was reminded thus by Matali, took hold of a blazing arrow, which was given by Brahma and which in turn was given to him by the glorious sage, Agastya earlier in the battle-field and which looked like a hissing serpent.
Having been made formerly for Indra, the lord of celestials by Brahma, the lord of creation of infinite strength, it was bestowed in the past on the ruler of gods, who was desirous of conquering the three worlds.
In its feathers, wind was established. In its end-point were the fire and the sun. In its heaviness were Mounts Meru and Mandara. Its shaft was made of ether.
Provided with good shaft decked with gold, the arrow which had its body shining, had been made up of the efficacy of all the elements and an illuminating power of the sun.
Blazing like a fire at the time of universal dissolution enveloped in smoke and looking like a venomous snake, it was swift in action and capable of bursting hosts of men, elephants and horses.
Smeared with blood on having killed Ravana and thereby accomplishing its mission, that arrow re-entered its own quiver (of Rama) silently.
From the hands of the slain Ravana, who was being separated from his life, fell his bow with its arrows (fitted to it), at the same time coinciding indeed with his life-breath.
Having lost his life, that king of demons for his part, who was endowed with terrible swiftness and invested with great splendour, fell down from the chariot to the ground , like Vritra the demon when the latter was struck down by the thunderbolt.
Seeing Ravana fallen down on earth, the surviving demons whose king had been killed, were panic stricken and ran away to all sides.
The monkeys, who fought with trees, fell upon the demons from all sides. Seeing the killing of Rvana, the monkeys assumed a triumphant appearance.
That Rama, the delight of Dasaratha, for his part, who had just killed his enemy and thus who was steadfast in his vows and who was endowed with a great splendour, who stood surrounded on the battle-field by his own people and the army shone like Indra the lord of celestials.
At the request of Bharata to take back the kingdom of Ayodhya, Rama accepts the offer and sits on a seat. Bharata and Rama take their bath and get adorned for the occasion. Rama, mounting on an excellent chariot, sallies forth on a procession in the city accompanied by Bharata, Shatrughna, Lakshmana and Vibhishana. Nine thousand elephants follow the procession, with Sugreeva and other monkeys mounted on them. Some attendants and musicians with their musical instruments walk in front of Rama's procession. The citizens of Ayodhya host flags on every house. Rama returns to his paternal palace in Ayodhya. Sugreeva orders four of his monkeys to bring water from four oceans in jars given to them. Some monkeys brought water from five hundred rivers, as also from the four oceans for the purpose of the ceremony. Vasishta along with other brahmins as priests caused Rama to be consecrated with that water. The virgins, ministers, warriors, merchants, the four gods as well as other gods sprinkled sap of all kinds of herbs on Rama. Vasishta and other priests officiating the coronation-ceremony adorned Rama with an auspicious and charming crown. Then, Rama gives away presents to the priests as well as Sugreeva and Angada. Rama presents a pearl-necklace to Seetha and Seetha presents that necklace in turn to Hanuma. Rama further gives away presents to Vibhishana, Sugreeva, Jambavan and others on the occasion. Rama bids farewell to monkeys. The glory of the epic is complemented in the end by Valmiki.
With which crown, long ago, Manu the emperor was adorned while he was consecrated and with which, the kings followed in his line were successively adorned while they were coronated, that crown studded with precious jewels, fashioned by Brahma at the beginning of creation and dazzling with splendour, being kept according to practice on a throne adorned with many kinds of precious stones in the council-hall, studded with gold, graced with abundant riches, decorated and shiningly made with most charming jewels of various kinds, and thereafter Rama duly adorned by that crown as well as jewels by the great-souled Vasishta and other priests officiating at the coronation-ceremony.
Rama the foremost among men, first gave away to Brahmanas, a hundred thousand horses and cows that have lately calved as well as a hundred bulls.
Rama presented to Seetha, an excellent string of pearls, furnished with superior gems, shining like a beam of moon-light; two clean and beautiful raiment and lovely ornaments.
Looking towards Hanuma the monkey, Seetha, daughter of Janaka, having taken off the pearl-string from her neck, repeatedly caught the glimpse of all the monkeys and her husband.
Looking at her, Rama who was acquainted with the gesture of another spoke to Seetha as follows: "Dear Seetha! Give the pearl-necklace to a person, with whom you are pleased and in whom the following viz. sharpness, firmness, renown, dexterity, competence, modesty, prudence, virility, prowess and intelligence are ever present."
The black-eyed Seetha gave that pearl necklace to Hanuma. Hanuma, the foremost among the monkeys, by wearing that necklace, which was as white as a heap of moonlight-beams, shone brilliantly as a mountain silvered by a white cloud.
Having enjoyed the kingship for ten thousand years, Rama performed a hundred horse-sacrifices, in which good horses were sacrificed and numerous gifts bestowed.
That Rama, having his long arms reaching down his knees, having a broad chest and glorious, ruled this earth with Lakshmana as his companion.
While Rama was ruling the kingdom, there were no widows to lament, nor there was no danger from wild animals, nor any fear born of diseases.
The world was bereft of thieves and robberies. No one felt worthless nor did old people perform obsequies concerning youngsters.
Every creature felt pleased. Every one was intent on virtue. Turning their eyes towards Rama alone, creatures did not kill one another.
While Rama was ruling the kingdom, people survived for thousands of years, with thousands of their progeny, all free of illness and grief.
raamo raamo raama iti prajaanaamabhavan kathaaH |
raamabhuutaM jagaabhuudraame raajyaM prashaasati || 6-128-103
While Rama ruled the kingdom, the talks of the people centered round Rama, Rama and Rama. The world became Rama's world.
The trees there were bearing flowers and fruits regularly, without any injury by pests and insects. The clouds were raining in time and the wind was delightful to the touch.
Brahmins (the priest-class), Kshatriyas (the warrior-class), Vaishyas (the class of merchants and agriculturists), Shudras (the servant-class) were performing their own duties, satisfied with their own work and bereft of any greed. While Rama was ruling, the people were intent on virtue and lived without telling lies.
All the people were endowed with excellent characteristics. All were engaged in virtue. Rama was engaged in the kingship thus for one thousand years.
In this world, whoever person reads and listens to this foremost lyric derived from the speech of a sage, which is endowed with righteousness, conferring fame and longevity, fetching victory to kings and as written at first by Valmiki, that person is delivered from all misfortune.
On hearing this epic of Ramayana and all the episode of victory of Rama, who was unweary in his actions, a person gets longevity to life.
aayuShyamaarogyakaraM yashasyaM |
saubhraatR^ikaM buddhikaraM shubhaM cha |
shrotavyametanniyamena sadbhi |
raakhyaanamojaskaramR^iddhikaamaiH || 6-128-125
This narrative is to be listened invariably by good people, seeking for wisdom, longevity, health, fame, fraternity, intelligence, welfare and brilliance.
Tulsidas: Ramcharita Manas  
 The storyboard of the RAMAYANA
from the book: Ramayana in the Arts of Asia, by Garrett Kam, Asia Book, Bangkok, 2000
The epic is so famous that some Chinese and Vietnamese opera troupes have a adapted it into their repertoires by selecting Ramayama characters from the great number of traditional opera roles. In Myanmar, temple carvings, dances, marionettes, and elaborate applique hangings portray scenes from the story. Variuous types of puppets, court and popular dance dramas, and temple murals and carvings are common throughout Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. It is common to find Ramayana episodes depicted next to Buddhist images stories in temples, as at the Temple of the Emerald Buddha in Bangkok. Of all the performing arts, however, nothing else can match the complete spectacle of the Cambodian nang sbek thom and related Thai nang yai. To the accompaniment of gongs, drums, and wind instruments, dozens of large figures cut from leather are animated by many dancers in the front and back of a huge screen lit by fire (even by a large cremation pyre) or electric lights. This clearly shows the close connections between dance and puppetry, for silhouettes of the performers are visible throughout the performance. From the royal courts evolved lengthy dramas with elaborately dressed dancers wearing fantastic masks. Even village groups adapted the masked dance style.
Perhaps nowhere else in Southeast Asia is the epic so evident as in Thailand. Rama is a previous incarnation of Buddha, and as the supreme monarch he is deemed faultless. Even today, it is against the law to insult the king. Since the current dynasty was established in the 18th century, Thai kings have been called Rama. Ordinaries Thais accord their monarch divine status, while influences of the epic permeate many aspects of s social and cultural life. Four of the Thai royal barges have monkey figures straddling cannons that are mounted on their bows, while modern naval vessels and aircraft are named after some of the characters. Bamboo rockets used during annual rain making rituals sometimes bear colorful cutout images of aerial scenes from the epic. Total destruction caused by storms as well as fatal traffic accidents that claim many lives are named after Ravana. Sacred Buddhist manuscripts often are stored in lacquered cabinets decorated with gold leaf illustrations from the epic. Traditional astrology is based upon characters and episodes, while some figures are invited to attend house purification rituals. Classical dancers pray to masks of the characters placed upon an altar with offerings before performing, and dolls dressed as court dancers are displayed in many homes. Techniques in traditional massage bear the names of hermits and their particular skills known in the story. Thai kick-boxers use fighting positions named after characters and incidents as metaphors of movement. Tattoos or images of Hanuman worn on their bodies bestow strength, courage, endurance, and protect against pain during bouts. On a more mundane level, images from the epic appear on advertisements, kites, T-shirts, calendars, coasters, postage stamps, telephone cards, matchboxes, and twice as collector cards in cigarette packs in the past.

IMPORTANT NAMES depending on the versions

Hanuman, Hanumat, Anjaneya, Anjata, Maruti: sof of Anjana and Vayu; monkey leader Balinese: Hanoman
Javanese: Anoman, Senggana
Karbi: Haliman
Khmer: Anjat, Anujit
Lao: Hanumon(e), Hulahman, Hunahman, Huonahman, Huorahman
Malay: haduman, Hanuman Kera Putih, Kera Kechil Iman Tergangga, Phalawan Udara, ShahNuman
Maranao: Laksamana (Mangawarna is the name of Lakshmana)
Singhalese: Hanumant
Tamil: Anuman
Thai: Anchar, Wanon
Tibetan: Hanumandha, Hanumanta
Rama, Ram, Bhargava: incarnation of Vishnu; oldest son of Dasharatha and Kausalya; husband of Sita; fater of Kusha and Lava
Asamiya: Vasumati
Balinese: Ramadewa
Chinese: Lo-mo
Javanese: Ragawa, Ramachandra, Sri Rama(wijaya)
Khamti: Chao Laman
Khmer: Preah Ram, Preah Ream
Lao: Ph(r)a Lahmahrat, Ph(r)a Lamma

Malay: Agung Gempita, Seri Rama
Maranao: Radia Mangandiri
Pali: Ramapandita
Prakrit: Pauma
Tamil: Iraman
Thai: Daranoi, Phram, Phara Ram
Tibetan: Ramana
Vietnamese: Chung Du
Ravana, Dashagriva, Dashakantha, Dashamukha, Asura Vana: ogre king of Langka; husband of mandodari; faterh of Indrajit
Balinese: Rawana
Hindi: Ravan
Javanese: Rahwana, Dasamuka
Kannada: Ravula
Karbi: Raban
Kawi: Rawana, Dasamukha
Khmer: Rab(n), Rabana, Krong Reap
Lao: Bommahchak, Dotsakhan, Haphanasun, Rabbahnasun
Malay: Dauwichit, Gambar mahasakti, maharaja Duwana, maharaja Wana, Rahana, Raja Di Rimba, Rawana
Maranao: Maharadia Lawana, Maharadia Duwan
Mongolian: Mangus, Tesegiriy, Tisegiri
Myanmar: Datthagiri
Sundanese: Rawana
Tamil: Iravanan
Thai: Thotsakan
Tibetan: Ashapa, mDa’shagriba
Vietnamese: Trang Minh
Sita, Janaki, Maithili: incarnation of Lakshmi; wife of Rama; mother of Kusha and Lava
Balinese: Dewi Sita
Javanese: Dewi Sinta
Kannada: Sittama
Karbi: Ita Kunri
Khmer: Neang Seda, Neang Seta, Neang Sita
Lao: Nang Sita
Malay: Puteri bungsu Hanyut, Chahaya Keinderaan, Sakutum Bunga Satangkai, Sita Dewi, Siti Dewi
Maranao: Tuwan Potre malaila Ganding, Tuwan Potre Malono Tihaia
Myanmar: Thida
Singhalese: Sitapati
Tamil: Shitai
Thai: Nang Piphat That Loi, Nang Sida
Tibetan: Rol-rNyed-ma, Zita
Vietnamese: Bach Tinh

Three examples of the different treatments
of a story depending on the versions.

1- Battle of the Buffalo

Malay: Cherita Maharaja Wana
A cow buffalo secretly gives birth to Dundubhi (Katibihara) in a cave to save to him form his father, who kills his sons at birth so as to remain the most powerful buffalo. Dundubhi swears to end the tyranny of his father and waits until their hoof prints are of the same size to ensure a fair fight. He asks the Dewa Empat (Four Gods; probably Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Kubera) for help. They empower each of his hoofs, and he kills his father.
Dundubhi challenges Vali (Bali) but denies receiving divine help when Vali asks about his strength. This offends the four gods, so they leave his hoofs. Vali kills the buffalo by twisting his neck, and foam comes out of the dying animal’s mouth, making his blood look lighter. Since Vali’s blood is white, Sugriva (Sagariwa), who is waiting outside for his brother, mistakenly concludes that Vali is dead,. He seals the cave with a boulder and returns to Kishkindha (Katakina), where Anggada and Nila (Anila) agree that he assumes the throne.
The Dewa Empat feel sorry for Vali, and in a dream tell him to cut off the head of Dundubhi and hurl it at the boulder blocking the entrance. Vali sets himself free and returns to Kishkindha. He finds Sugriva asleep with his three wives. Vali hurls Sugriva into the forest and banishes Anggada and Nila along with him. Sugriva weeps so heavily he becomes covered in a mound of his own eye mucus.
Thai: Ramakien (Ramakerti)
A celestial guardian bothers a goddess and is cursed to be reborn as the buffalo Torapa. Aware that he will return to heaven if killed by one of his sons, Torapa destroys all of them at birth. One of his wives secretly gives birth to a son named Dundubhi (Torapi). Dundubhi measures his hoof prints against those of Torapa until they are of the same size. He kills Torapa and terrorists others, even threatening the monkey. Vali (phali) tricks bundubhi into revealing the secret of his power. Dundubhi praises his horns without acknowledging the gods, so the deities abandon him and Vali kills him. Rainfall dilutes the dark blood and maker it lighters: Sugriva (Sukhrip) thinks Vali is dead and seals the cave. Vali cuts off Bundubhi’s head and uses it to break open the cave, then chases Sugriva away.
Khmer: Raamker
A ferocious buffalo king kills his own sons, so one of his wives hides her baby son Dundubhi (Dubhi). The buffalo king eventually learns about his secret son. When they meet, Dundubhi kneels in respect, but the buffalo king accuses him of cowardice. Angered by his arrogance, Dundubhi fights and kills his father, fully aware of what a terrible sin it is. Vali (bali) devises a plan with Sugriva (Sugrib) and tricks the buffalo into entering a cave. Dundubhi encounters difficulty because the space is too small, and Vali kills him. His dark blood flows out and desecrates the hermitage of a sage, who curses the person responsible to die. Celestial beings send down showers of flowers that make the blood look lighter. Sugriva weeps, thinking his brother is killed. The monkeys seal the cave it rocks. Sugriva returns home and becomes king.
Vali finds the entrance blocked, so he cuts off Dundubhi’s head and hurls it at the boulders, scattering rocks everywhere. He accuses Sugriva of treachery. Sugriva flees, with Vali in pursuit. Sugriva seeks refuge in the mountains where the sage lives, knowing that Vali will not go there due to the curse of death put on him. Attended by Hanuman, Sugriva hides and weeps bitter tears that flow like a river.
Lao: Pha Lak Pha Lam
A buffalo learns the incantation to become impervious to injury. He grows powerful and arrogant. One of his wives plots to destroy him. She asks him to teach her the spell for her won protection. Later, she secretly gives birth to as son in a cave but lies that he had a miscarriage. She teaches her son Dundubhi (Duorahbi) the incantation, and tells him to hone his fighting skills by using his horns to tear vines to pieces. Next, he has to ram trees and pierce the fruits as they fall. Then, he learns to fling away his own excrement with his horns before they drop to the ground. After he masters those skills, his mother tells him to wait until he matches the size and strength of his father to challenge him.
Dundubhi compares their hoof print sizes until they are the same, then challenges his father. He makes love with his father’s wives; since then, buffaloes mate with their own mothers. When Dundubhi’s father sees this, he fights with his son. Dundubhi injures his father many times, and each time his father retreats until his wounds are healed. Finally, Dundubhi kills his father by piercing his heart, but he has committed the sin of patricide. Dundubhi grows arrogant and attacks Kishindha (Kasi). Tara (Kottahrat) volunteers to fight, but because she is pregnant, Vali (Lichan) and Sugriva (Sanggip) help her. Tara is injured and falls to the ground; twin sons burst out of her womb. Vali takes the afterbirth and throws it at Dundubhi, who intercepts it with his horns, but he loses one fourth of his power. As Vali and Sugriva take Tara and her two-son back to safety, Dundubhi taunts, “You retreat with a woman, so you should wear skirts like her!” Insulted, Vali and Sugriva return to fight him. They fly up into the sky, but Dundubhi invites them down to fight in his cave. Vali cuts off the buffalo’s head, but rainfall dilutes the blood that flows out like water in which meat has been washed. Sugriva seals the cave with a boulder to keep Dundubhi inside, and returns home. Sugriva tells Tara that her husband is dead, but she does not believe him because he did not see the body. She goes to investigate and hears Vali calling out for help. They con not move the boulder, so Vali takes the head of Dundubhi and hurls it at the rock, which shatters. He and Tara return and chase Sugriva away.
Sanskrit: Valmiki Ramayana
Dundubhi ridicules Vali, who is drunk and in the company of women. Vali picks him up, twirls him around, and dashes him to the ground. He kicks the demon’s body away but it lands near a hermitage. The sage curses the person responsible to death, and for his friends to turn into stone if they enter the forest. Dundubhi’s son attacks in revenge, but Vali chases him into a cave and tells Sugriva to stand guard outside. The sounds of a terrible battle roar inside, and then torrents of blood gush out. Sugriva fears that his brother is dead, rolls a boulder across the entrance, and returns to home. Vali, who has killed the demon, frees himself and banishes Sugriva, who seeks safety in the forest here, the sage’s curse keeps Vali away.
Lao: Guay Duorahbi
Vali (Bari) offers a thousand pieces of gold to the one who can get rid of the buffalo herd Dundubhi (Douorahbi). His wife and younger sister Anjana (Kasiratdita) accept the challenge even though she is pregnant. She kills many buffaloes, but one beast pierces her eyes with his horns and rips her skirt to sheds. Since then, buffaloes have curved horns. Anjana gives birth to two sons, one of whom is Anggada. The people sew together the pieces of her skirt for her to wear, which is why Lao women make patchwork skirts. Blinded, Anjana lives under a tree with her mouth open upwards, waiting for fruits to fall.
At this time, a demon kills people with his poi9sonous hand. A woman named Gandharvi (Guandawbi) accepts a king’s challenge to kill the demon. She entices him with her feminine charms and agrees to become his wife if he dances with her. The demon follows her movements and kills him when she points to her head. The king is aroused to see her dance and has an orgasm. Gandharvi collects the sperm and pours it into the mouth of Anjana, who gives birth to Hanuman (Hanumon). One day, Hanuman mistakes the sun for a fruit and flies over to eat it but it burned. The sun sprinkles the elixir of life on the remaining bubbles of blood to restore him. Hanuman now is endowed with power and the ability to change into any form or size.
Meanwhile, Vali and Sugriva (Sanggip) are ashamed at their cowardice. They chase the buffaloes into a cave. Vali kills them inside, but rain makes their blood clear, so Sugriva leaves and becomes king. Vali returns and tries to kill Sugriva, who flees into the forest and weeps bitterly over his fate. He becomes covered in a mound of his own eye mucus, from which his tears flow like a stream.
2- Perfect Prize
Sankrit: Valmiki Ramayana

Janaka tells Vishvamitra, Rama, and Lakshmana that no one has been able to handle the mighty bow of Shiva. “If Rama can discharge the weapon,” he says, “then Sita is his.” Thousands of men bring in the bow, which is mounted on a cart. Rama easily picks it up, but when he attempts to string it the bow breaks in half with a thunderous roar. Janaka is pleased and sends messengers to Ayodhya to inform Rama’s family of the marriage. Dasharatha is overjoyed and leaves the following morning with the royal entourage. The wedding takes place with great celebration.
Malay: Cherita maharaja Wana
Janaka (Maharesi Kali) decides that Sita (Sita Dewi) is old enough get married. With divine help he creates an enormous underground serpent with a palm tree growing on each of its forty curves. The gods send down an arrow, and its sheath grows into a huge teak tree. Janaka decrees that whoever lifts the arrow and uses it to shoot the trees will win Sita’s hand, Janaka invites the sons of Dasharatha (Dasarata) to the contest but warns that an ogre, a huge scorpion, and a fire-breathing rhinoceros guard the way. Janaka takes Rama (Seri Rama) and Lakshmana (laksamana) with him, and Rama kills the three monsters.
Rama lifts the arrow and shoots it , but it pierces only seven trees. Lakshmana observes that the trees are moving and discovers the serpent below. He tells Rama to step on the3 serpent’s head while the pulls on the tail to straighten the trees, which Rama then successfully shoots. The other participants claim that they did it, so Janaka asks them to uproot the teak tree. Rama is the only one who can do it, using his toes. Ravan leaves and waits along the way, planning to abduct Sita.
Janaka wants to invites everyone, including the gods, to the wedding. He tells Rama to wait for him to return, and hides Sita among thirty-nine statues of her in the temple. DRama gets impatient and starts searching for Sita.
“Use a coconut leaf rib and tickle the eyes of each figure,” suggests Lakshmana. The real Sita blinks, and she leaves reluctantly with Rama and Lakshmana, fearing her father’s reaction. When Janaka returns, he angrily predicts their separation.
Lao: Pha Lak Pha Lam
Ravana (Ravanasura=Rabbahnasun) hears about the beauty of Sita, so the hermit asks him to lift his bow. Ravana fails and falls over on his rear end. “If you try to take Sita away, you will not be able to even touch her without feeling burned,” warns the hermit, “She is only suitable for a bodhisattva, a future Buddha.” Ravana is insulted and asks the hermit to lift his bow, which he does with one hand. Ravana plucks his bowstring that explodes like a hundred thousand thunderclaps. The hermit plucks his, and the sound drowns out the noise, echoing throughout the universe. The noise and hide in the lotus pond frighten Sita and her companion.
The hermit defeats Ravana in several fights, but feels sorry for the ogre, he creates Mandodari(Suddo) for him. “You will die if you marry Sita,” he explains. “Take this woman instead. The nine sons born to her will have great supernatural power. If they are wounded her body will heal them. The first and second only need to lick the tears from the right and left eyes, the third and fourth her right and left ears, the fifth and sixth her right and left nostrils, and t he seventh her mouth. The eighth and ninth have to suckle at her right and left breasts.”
Ravana still wants Sita and goes to her palace but finds it empty, so he follows the footprints to the lotus pond. He multiplies his hands to ten thousand and pulls Sita and her companions out. They cry for help, and the hermit plucks his bowstring. This startles Ravana and he dorps them and flees with mandodari. Sita and her companions run back to hide among the lotuses. The hermit calls out for them, and they emerge from their hiding place.
Maranao: Maharadia Lawana
Spectators marvel at the ball-kicking skills of Rama (Mangandiri) and Lakshmana (Mangawarna). Rama spins around three times as his rival suitor’s approach, and then kicks the ball up into Sita’s (Malano Tihaia) open window. She places her ring, handkerchief, and a small bag of betel chew into the ball and throws it down onto Rama’s lap. He takes out the contents and scatters the contents of the bag. Rama and Lakshmana leave as the others fight over the betel chew.
When the sultan asks to see the ring, handkerchief, and betel bag, none of them can show the items. Three days later, they return with three objects that they claim being to her. The sultan asks Sita to identify her items, but she finds none of them are hers. She asks her father to search the kingdom for her property. Finally, the sultan visits the old woman. He sees Sita’s handkerchief and betel bag hanging form the wall. The old woman tells him that they belong to Rama. When the sultan identifies the objects as the property of his daughter, the old woman hides because she fears that Rama is a thief.
The sultan sees Sita’s ring on Rama’s finger and invites him and Lakshmana back to he palace to begin preparations for the wedding of Rama and Sita. His wife first asks that Rama kill the giant serpent in the mountains, which has been blocking out the sun. Rama and Lakshmana return home to make bows and arrows, and find the serpent asleep. “It would be cowardly to kill a sleeping enemy,” says Rama, “When it wakes up, each of us will shoot one of its eyes at the same time.” They climb a tree and wait. The serpent smells their presence and opens its eyes, and the brothers shoot their arrows and kill the monster.
The wife of the sultan does not believe that the serpent is dead and asks for proof. Rama tells there to wait for seven days; during this time the body rots, emitting an over powering stench. The people cut the serpent up into pieces and throw them into the sea. The sun shines again, and on that day the marriage of Rama and Sita is celebrated. Several days later, Rama feels homesick and asks to return home. The sultan is concerned of the dangers at sea, so Rama suggests a land journey, a carriage is built and loaded with provisions for them. At the edge of the forest some men build a house and garden for them. Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana settle there in happiness.
Myanmar: Thiri Yama
Ravana (Dashagiri=Datthagiri) is only able to lift the bow as high as his knees, but he claims victory and demands the hand of Sita (Thida). Lakshmana (Lakkhana) easily picks up the bow, but he puts it back down for Rama (Yama) to try. Rama lifts the weapon, strings it, and fires an arrow with a thundering sound that disrupts Parashuraama’s (Bhazuyama’s) meditaion. Parashurama angrily descends from his mountain hermitage. He confronts Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana but refuses to accept Rama’s apology. After a prolonged fight, Parashurama surrenders and asks for forgiveness from Rama.
Khotanese: Ramakatha
Dasharatha (Sahasravahu) steals the cow of a priest, so that the holy man and his son Parashurama are reduced to begging. Parashurama does penance for twelve years, and Brahma grants him an axe with the power to kill kings. He slays Dasharatha, so Kausalya hides Rama and Lakshmana underground for twelve year. When the boys emerge, they search for Parashurama and kill him in revenge for their father’s death. While wandering in a forest, Rama and Lakshmana see Stia. They fall in love with Sita, and t he hermit allows her to go with them.
Sanskrit: Valmiki Ramayana
Rama and Sita and their entourage meet Parashurama, a sworn enemy of the ruling class since one of them murdered his defenseless father. He says to Rama, “Now try your hand with my bow!” Rama easily strings the weapon because it belongs to Vishnu and points the arrow at Parashurama, who begs for forgiveness. As the arrow must have a target, Parashurama offers his magical vision. After arriving home, Bharata, accompanied by Shatrughna, leaves soon after to spend time with his grandparent. 
3- The Sorrow of Separation                                                             
Sanskrit: Valmiki Ramayana
Sita sees Jatayu and screams for help. The bird shouts, “The wife of another must be protected as one’s own!” The aerial battle of Ravana and Jatayu is like the collision of flying mountains. Ravana cuts off Jatayu’s wings and speeds off to Langka. While in to air, Sita spots five monkeys below, removes her jewels and bundles them in her shawl, and throws the parcel down to teem. Ravana puts Sita in his palace chambers. “Be my wife and enjoy life. If you do not accept me in twelve months, I will eat you for breakfast!” threatens Ravana. “By then nothing will be left of me,” Sita replies. The ogresses to take Sita to a rove. Indra descends from heaven and puts the female attendants to sleep. He lets Sita see that his feet do not touch the ground, and that his eyes do not blink. “Eat this celestial food and you will never feel hungry, thirsty, or tired,” he tells her.
Meanwhile Rama and Lakshmana find Sita missing. By observing the movements of animals, they turn their search towards the south. Soon they find broken weapons, parts of a chariot, and blood. Rama threatens to destroy the universe. “You can not punish all of creation for the sin of one person,” advises Lakshmana. When they find Jatayu, Rama suspects him and rushes up to kill the bird. With his dying breath, Jatayu explains the events. Rama throws his weapon aside and embraces the bird, which soon dies. Rama performs the cremation rites.
An ogress tries t o abducts Lakshmana and suffers the same mutilation as Shurpanakha. Kabandha, a headless ogre with its face on its belly, catches Rama and Lakshmana in his long arms. They cut themselves free and kill him. Released from a curse, the ogre turns back into a celestial being. Kabandha says, “One way to overcome hardship is to find someone in a similar situation. A monkey named Sugriva has been deprived of his kingdom and wife. Help him regain the throne, and he will help you rescue Sita.” Kabandha returns to heaven, and Rama and Lakshmana follow his advice. They meet Shabari, a female ascetic who points the way to Sugriva’s dwelling. She then enters the sacrificial fire and ascends to paradise.
Tamil: Kamban Iramavataram
Jatayu (Chatayu) tries to rescue Sita (Shitai) and estroys Ravana’s (Iravanan’s) chariot. Ravana cuts off the bird’s wings and continues on to Langka (Langkai) by foot. Rama (Iraman) and Lakshmana (Ilakkumanan) find Jatayu. When the bird dies, Rama cremates him. Lakshmana goes to find some water for Rama. An ogress falls in love with him and carries him off, but Lakshmana cuts off her ears and nose.
Khmer: Reamker
Sita calls out for an egret to tell Rama (Ram) of her abduction. Then Jatayu sees Ravana (Rab) and they battle. Their clash makes sounds like thunder. The bird destroys Ravana’s chariot, but the ogre hurls Sita’s ring at Jatayu, breaking his wings. Meanwhile, lakshmana(Laksm) and Rama meet jatayu. Rama promises the bird a place in heaven. Jatayu dies and Rama performs the cremation. When Kabandha (Kumbhanda) seizes Rama, he breaks off the ogre’s fangs and Lakshmana helps to destroy him. The egret tells Rama and Lakahmana of Sita’s abduction, but they get annoyed that he egret will spread the news. “Spare my life, and in the future I will fly three times around the palace of Langka to bring about its ruin,” pleads the bird.
Thai: Ramakian (Ramakerti)
Jatayu (Sadayu) boasts to Ravana (Dashakantha=Thotsakna) that the ring of Sita (Sida) is the most powerful weapon. Ravana throws it at the bird, cutting his wings. Jatayu falls to earth with the ring in his beak. Sita throws down her shawl to a group of monkeys. Meanwhile, Rama (Ram) and Lakshmana (Lak) find Jatayu, who presents Sita’s ring and gives up his soul. Rama cremates the grid with llaming arrows.
Malay: Cherita Maharaja Wana, Hikayat Seri Rama
Ravana (Maharaja Wana) tricks Jatayu (Jentayu) into revealing that his life force is in his wings and cuts them off. Sita asks to speak to the wounded bird and places her ring in his beak. As Ramana carries her off, she tears up her shawl and casts bits of it down as a trail. Meanwhile, Rama (Seri Rama) and Lakshmana (Laksamana) find some salty tasting water. It leads them to the dying Jatayu. Rama takes the ring from his beak and Jatayu dies. They bury him and them come across the trail made by Sita’s shawl.
Malay: wayang kulit Siam
Ravana and Jatayu collide in the sky, which breaks the bird’s wings. Ravana deposits the white swallow that is Sita’s soul with a demon. Without her soul, Sita stays awake all the time. Ravana is unable to touch her because when he tries, blood comes out from his pores. Meanwhile, Rama and Lakhsmana follow a foul smelling stream and find Jatayu. Rama cremates the bird by holding the body in his arms, because the ground for the pyre of such a noble creature must be pure and never stepped on.
Lao: Pha lak Pha Lam
Finding Sita missing, Rama (Lam) wants to kill Lakshmana (Lak) but the flying horse Kaustabhamani (Mahnikap) stops him. Rama orders Lakshmana to make a fire for cooking, but is puzzled when he burns only one stick at a time. “You are like this piece of wood, consumed with flaming anger when you tried to kill me,” explains Lakshmana, “You would have been alone and powerless. We must work together, just as a good fire is made from a bundle of sticks.” Rama sees the wisdom in this.
Rama and Lakshmana mount the flying horse and being their search for Sita. Three goddesses change themselves to look like Sita, but Rama knows that they are illusions. When Rama asks to see the real Sita, Kaustabhamani recites a spell that makes Ravana (Ravanasun=Rabbahnasun) and the stone figure ring her back. While they are flying through the sky, the garuda (gut) bird expands his wings to hide the sun, creating darkness everywhere. Unable to see, Ravana wanders about.
Laughing at his confusion, the bird boasts, “only the ring of Rama is stronger than me!” Hearing this, Ramana takes Rama’s ring from Sita’s finger and throws it as garuda, cutting his wings and making the sky bright again. With Kaustabhamani’s spell also broken, Ravana returns to Langka with Sita. The tow brothers find the injured bird. Rama recites an incantation and blows his breath on garuda, healing his damaged wings. The bird promises to help Rama and flies away.
Japanese: Hobutsushu
In a path between two hills, a huge bird tries to block the sage who is abducting the wife of the bodhisattva king. The sage resumes his form as a dragon and fights the bird, breaking his wings with lightning bolts. He continues on with the queen to his island home. Meanwhile, the bodhisattva king finds his wife missing. He searches for her and finds the wounded bird that tells him of the abduction with his last breath. The king buries the bird at the top of a mountain and goes to the south to find the dragon king.
Malay: Syair Agung
Rama (Agung Gempita) searches for Sita (Chahaya Keinderaan) alone but gives Lakshmana (Halam Gempita) a ring with a white stone ring that will turn red if he is in danger. With an arrow, Rama creates a flying green horse. He pauses to rest under a tree, not knowing that a family of three ghosts lives there. Their ugly daughter is infatuated with Rama, but he spurns her. They torture Rama until he falls unconscious.
The stone on Lakshmana’s ring turns red. Realizing that Rama is in danger, he creates a flying white horse with his sword and goes to find him. He rests under a tree inhabited by three monkeys who are cursed celestial beings. They know that Lakshmana can set them free. Lakshmana overhears them and climbs up. But his sword falls out and beheads the three monkeys. They turn back into a god, goddess, and their daughter. The god and goddess give Lakshmana a magical ring and arrow. They change their daughter into a man named Hanuman (Pahlawan Udara, Wind Warrior) and give him a flying horse.
Meanwhile, the three ghosts threaten to burn Rama in a hole, but Shiva (Gangga Sakti) takes Rama to heaven and revives him, then makes him invulnerable. Shiva returns Rama to earth and gives him a magical gemstone to call the god for help, and a ring that can grant any wish. Rama resumes his search for Sita and meets Lakshmana and Hanuman. They kill the three ghosts, who are released from their curse and return to heaven. Rama, Lakshmana, and Hanuman continue their search for Sita.

Zurich | 14/05/2009 - 03/05/2009 The Love Story continues Rama and Sita in the Park-Villa Rieter

Exhibition about the Ramayana, an ancient Sanskrit epic that is considered to be the oldest and longest epic in world literature. On show are 65 exhibits selected from collection of the Museum Rietberg, telling the story of the Sanskrit-Saga. The Ramayana originally written by the poet Valmiki, and compiled between approximately 400 BCE and 200 CE, consists of 24,000 verses in six cantos. The Ramayana tells the story of a prince, Rama of Ayodhya, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. Rama is the hero of this tale and he is portrayed as an incarnation of the god Vishnu. He is the eldest and the favorite son of the King of Ayodhya, Dasaratha. The Ramayana follows the life of Rama and his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana and even today is a very important part of Indian mythology and culture. 

Rama and his court watch Sita undergoing fire ordeal (Thai Ramayana mural)

Rama and his court watch Sita during the fire ordeal, as seen on a mural at the Emerald Buddha Temple.
Sita stands calmly in a gated area with flames burning around the lotus blossom platform on which she stands. One of the monkey kings lights the fire with a torch in front, while Rama and his courtiers watch the spectacle from a royal pavillion at right.
After being separated from Sita for many years during her capture by Ravana, Rama is unsure of his wife’s fidelity. In order to prove that she has been faithful, Sita willingly undergoes an ordeal, or trial by fire.
In ancient South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe (not to mention colonial America), it was thought that the innocence of an accused criminal could be proven if they survived some kind of extreme physical torture such as burning or drowning.
In some versions of the Ramayana, it is said that lotus flowers sprouted at Sita’s feet to protect her from the fire, or that not a flower petal in her hair was faded by the fire because the gods, who knew she was pure of heart, protected her completely.
In contemporary Southeast Asian fiction, the story of Rama and Sita is often retold to highlight a double standard for men versus women: that women are supposed to prove their faithfulness to men, but the behavior of absent men is never questioned. Some contemporary Southeast Asian women dislike the character of Rama, seeing him less as a hero whose valor should be modelled by men today than an old-fashioned man who did not treat his innocent wife properly when she returned to him.
This image was photographed in August 1984. 

Gheorghe Şeitan: „Rama din Carpaţi şi legendarul Negru-Vodă“

Nu există neam pe pământ care să nu aibă un stramoş comun, un fondator al ţarii, ori al cetaţii-capitale, un erou mitic, anistoric, de la care regii sau prinţii trăitori în istoria concretă sa se revendice (1).
Aşa a fost prinţul Tezeu pentru cetatea Atena, Enea pentru poporul roman, Romulus – întemeietorul mitic al Romei, Huang-Di – Împaratul Galben pentru chineji, Scites – suveranul legendar al sciţilor şi tot astfel Negru-Vodă pentru valahii Munteniei .
Iar ca să-l înţelegem pe acest mitic Negru-Vodă trebuie, mai întâi să mergem în orient, unde şi astăzi mai există regate, ori case princiare ai căror conducători se revendică din prinţul Rama- eroul epopeii hinduse Ramayana.
Este cazul Thailandei, unde actualul suveran este Rama al IX-lea, precum şi unele state din istoria mai apropiată ori mai îndepărtată a Indiei : Rama-Gupta, un suveran din timpul imperiului Gupta; Rama-Raya, împărat în imperiul Vijaya-nagar; Rama-Chandra, conducător din  dinastia Yadava; Rama-Raya, rege în statul Maratha şi exemplele ar putea continua (2).
Facem precizarea că, potrivit celor mai autorizati exegeţi în indianistică, numele prinţului, Rama, înseamnă cel care se odihneşte, cel care aduce pacea, cel bun, cel plăcut, cel fermecător, cel drag, cel frumos, si nu în ultimul rând, cel negru (3).
Potrivit concepţiei brahmanice asupra universului, regele  era de natură divina, fiind reprezentantul pe pământ al zeului Vishnu şi prin urmare, Rama- unul dintre avatara lui Vishnu - este simbolul regelui ideal şi model de guvernare statală.
Vrem să arătăm prin aceasta că, într-o societate în care predomină legea vedico-buddhistă, existenţa unor conducători statali care îl recunosc pe Rama, adică pe Negrul, ca fiind prinţul întemeietor, este ceva normal.
Or tocmai despre faptul că Romînia a fost teritoriul matca al indo-europenilor şi locul de formare a culturii vedice s-a scris nu odată şi nu fără argumente (4).
Există chiar o bogată literatură despre Rama din Carpaţi, plecat cu multe mii de ani înainte de Hristos, în fruntea triburilor arice, din pădurile hiperboreilor geti.
Prin urmare a căuta o Ramayană carpato-dunareană în cultura română, nu facem decât să prelungim mai departe idei exprimate deja.
Ceea ce nu s-a arătat până acum şi vrem să demonstrăm în cele ce urmează sunt firele nevăzute care leagă pe Rama din Carpaţi de Negru -Vodă, întemeietorul, din cronicile şi legendele românilor.
Identitatea dintre Rama şi Negru-Vodă se realizează, în primul rând, la nivel semantic, pentru că Rama, în traducere înseamnă negrul.
Mai mulţi istorici care s-au ocupat de istoricitatea lui Negru-Vodă au încercat să vadă aici o porecla, ori o anume negritudine a personajului, fie a carnaţiei, fie a părului.
Rama şi Negru-Vodă provin însă dintr-un univers cu structură simbolică, în care numele culorii nu trebuie luat ad-literam, negrul semnificând de cele mai multe ori primordialitatea, ceea ce este propiu dinaştilor întemeietori.
În mandalele hinduse fiecărei direcţii a spaţiului îi corespunde o anume culoare şi un anume guvernator.Există o simbolică a culorilor împaraţilor în cultura chineză şi în basmele romînilor, precum Împăratul Roşu, Împăratul Verde, Galben, Alb, Negrul. Prin urmare atît Rama cît şi Negru-Vodă au primit aceste nume fără vreo legătură cu un atribut fizic.
În al doilea rând, după cum Rama este Chandra, adică Luna (Rama-Chandra) tot astfel Negru-Vodă este craiul.În limba română, cuvîntul crai desemnează atît prinţul conducător de ţară ori ţinut, aşa cum apare el in letopiseţe sau în basme, cât şi astrul nopţii, Luna.Se spune Crai-Nou la luna aflată în acea fază a ei în care apare ca o seceră, numite şi coarne lunare.
Pare neverosimil ca Rama, prinţ din dinastia solară să fie numit Chandra, adica Luna sau craiul .În cazul lui Negru-Vodă, însă acest atributiv ţine de refacerea unitaţii primordiale sau a androginiei filozofice.
După acelasi principiu, vlăstarul de os domneasc din basmele romînilor, are înscris întotdeauna, pe trupul său, soarele în piept şi luna în spate, iar la brâu un spic de grâu.
În al treilea rând atât Rama din scrierile sanscrite, cât şi Negru-Vodaădin cronicile medievale româneşti sunt consideraţi ca fiind păstrători de lege (dharma) şi rânduială străbună, iar acest lucru pare firesc dacă se ia în calcul calitatea lor de prinţi fondatori statali.Dacă pentru Rama aceste calitaţi se află scrise explicit, în cazul lui Negru-Vodă ele se deduc, din ton şi din evlavia cu care de fiecare dată este pomenit, atunci când este vorba de spiritul de dreptate, fie în cronici, fie în cultura orală, populară.De n-ar fi fost aşa memoria românilor nu l-ar fi păstrat.Se poate bănui un cult al lui Negrul-Vodă la geţi, corespunzător cultului lui Rama, prezent şi astăzi printre popoarele Indiei.
În al patrulea rând Rama ca şi Negru-Vodă sunt prinţi exilaţi, peregrini prin codrii. Să ne amintim că Rama, Sita şi fratele său Lakshmana au fost nevoiţi să trăiască timp de  paisprezece ani departe de cetatea de baştina, Ayodhya (Aiud) în adâncimi de pădure, departe de lume.Şi Negru-Vodă este tot un peregrin prin codrii deşi acest lucru, astăzi, nu se mai ştie. Iată dovada într-un cântec bătrânesc autentic : 

Pe Argeş în jos,
Pe un mal frumos,
Verde şi stufos,
Prin des carpiniş,
Prin mândru haţiş
Şi prin aluniş,
Şi tot locul schimbă,
Negru-Vodă – Crai
Cu mare alai (5). 

Aceste doua versuri ,,Plimbă-mi-se-mplimbă/Şi tot locul schimbă”, exprimă condiţia de rătăcitor,  starea de prinţ autoexilat din lume ce îsi schimbă mereu locul, după cum epopea ne spune : când la Chitrakuta ( Chiatra/Piatra Neamţ) când la Panciavati ( Panciu) când la sihăstria vestitului Atri (Chilia Moşului de la mânastirea Cetaţuia lui Negru-Vodă). 
În al cincilea rând, unei Biharii din India, socotită a fi vechea Kosala- patria lui Rama, îi corespunde o Biharie (Bihor) transilvană, pe care trebuie să o considerăm patria lui Negru-Vodă şi din alte trei motive : a) tradiţia cărturărească, din cronici, care spune că Negru-Vodă a sosit în parţile Munteniei venind din nord. b)regăsirea capitalei ţării, Kosala, numită Ayodhya în localitatea Aiud, care se află situată în aceeaşi zonă .Prin urmare, Kosala carpatică, patria lui Negru-Vodă a fost Biharia ( Bihor) şi trebuie să fi fost mult mai întinsă decât actualul judeţ Bihor. c)din această Kosala ramayanică făceau parte şi munţii Pădurea Craiului, adică munţii lui Rama-Chandra sau Negru-Vodă-Craiul.
În al şaselea rând, Rama şi fratele său Lakshmana devin Roman şi Vlahata din legenda care priveşte întemeierea Moldovei. Aici prinţul nu este Negru-Vodă căci Rama apare sub numele său consacrat, fapt explicabil dacă ţinem cont că legenda funcţionează într-un spaţiu din afara graniţelor Munteniei,  pe filieră moldava (6).  După cum Rama, Sita si fratele lui Rama, numit Lakshmana au fost surghiuniţi în codru, tot astfel cronica scrie că Roman şi Vlahata sunt doi fraţi care părăsesc cetatea Veneţiei, goniţi fiind de eretici şi îsi zidesc o alta cetate, Noul Râm. Este evident ca nu avem decat o adaptare a scenariului din Ramayana la cerintele momentului feudal, caracterizat de confruntarea dintre catolici şi ortodocşi.
În al şaptelea rând, atât Rama cât şi Negru-Vodă sunt caracterizaţi ca oameni pioşi ocrotitori ai asceţilor. Rama i-a ocrotit pe veneraţii sanyasini, le-a purtat respect şi atunci când a fost cazul i-a apărat faţă de demonii raksaşi. Pe de altă parte Negru-Vodă este şi el un ocrotitor al schimnicilor, dovedit prin faptul că el a rămas în legende ca fiind constructor de mânăstiri, iar cântecul bătrânesc ,,Meşterul Manole” îl prezintă tocmai în această ipostază.
În judeţul Argeş există mânăstirea ,,Cetaţuia lui Negru-Vodă” care păstrează o biserică rupestră, de închinăciune creştină, aflată pe locul alteia, păgîne şi care se consideră a fi fost locul unde poposea Negru-Vodă cu Doamna sa, pentru reculegere – ideie ramayanică prin excelentă. Pe prima terasă a Muchiei Cetăţuii, pe un pinten stâncos au fost descoperite urme ale unei aşezări dacice, datând din secolul 3 Î.H..Deasupra schitului, pe o lespede de piatră, strajuită de o troiţă se desluşesc urmele unor paşi despre care legenda spune că ar fi fost ale lui Negru-Vodă.
Or prezenţa amprentelor paşilor, în piatră este specifică cultelor unor divinităţi antice şi n-ar fi exclus ca, aşa cum în India există capele închinate lui Rama, să fi existat şi în Carpaţi altare dedicate lui Negru-Vodă. În spatele bisericii mânăstirii Negru-Vodă se află o scobitură în piatră numită Chilia Moşului, crestele munţilor din apropiere se numesc ,,Negru-Vodă călare”, un alt promontoriu din zonă este cunoscut ca fiind ,,Tronul lui Negru-Vodă”. În această alăturare Negru-Vodă – Moşul se află legătura dintre Rama şi sanyasini, schimnicii pădurilor, dar mai poate fi şi coabitarea dintre puterea regală şi cea sacerdotală, provenind dintr-o religie vedică, protogetică.
În al optulea rând există destule legende toponimice, legate de Negru-Vodă, care puse cap la cap reconstituie fragmentar acea Ramayană carpato-dunăreană astăzi pierdută.
Rama, Sita şi Lakshmana cu întreaga lor poveste a vieţii fericite în codrii, apoi lupta eroului pentru salvarea prinţesei răpite de demonul Ravana, pot oferi o explicaţie logică legendelor de genul : ,Masa lui Negru-Vodă” (locul unde mâncau Rama şi Sita); ,,Săritoarea lui Negrul-Vodă” (cascada lui Rama de pe râul Mandakini din Chitrakuta); ,,Scăldătoarea lui Negru-Vodă”(locul de îmbăiere al lui Rama din codru); ,,Podul lui Negru-Vodă” (podul lui Rama spre Sri-Lanka) (7).
Epopea lui Negru-Vodă trebuie să fi fost suficient de cunoscută şi îndrăgită de marea masă a geţilor, din moment ce toponimia României este plină de locuri care amintesc de ispravile sale ori de ţara sa de origine, mitica Kosala.
În al noulea rând, legenda corvineştilor care explică prezenţa corbului în blazonul voevozilor din Muntenia se află într-o formă asemănătoare în Ramayana. Între acest fragment din epopee şi legenda lui Ioan Corvin sunt următoarele elemente comune : existenţa unui cuplu princiar; somnul bărbatului şi veghea femeii; apariţia corbului; trezirea bărbatului; săgetarea corbului (8).  Este cum nu se poate mai limpede că înainte de a fi fost o legendă medievală acest episod a făcut parte din Ramayana carpatică, pe care o căutăm, după cum tot atat de limpede este, pentru oricine, că pasărea corb este pasărea neagră, negrul-corb fiind negrul total.
În cheie simbolică vedică acest episod ar putea să însemne detaşarea faţă de fructul faptei, însuşire a iniţiatului, obligat să trăiască, totuşi, în lume.
În al zecelea rând există mai multe asemănări între calitaţile lui Lakshmana ţi fratele lui Negru-Vodă, cel din cântecele bătrâneşti ori legende (v.Roman şi Vlahata,precum şi fratele-cioban al voevodului din lirica străveche, autentică). Deşi tradiţia nu l-a reţinut sub acelaşi nume el are atribute similare lui Lakshmana : el este cel priceput, cel norocos, cel dibaci, el este vlahul. În cântecele bătrâneşti fratele lui Negru-Vodă este reprezentat printr-un cioban care îşi regăseşte ruda de sânge printr-o întâmplare, însă şi la el predomină aceeaşi calitate- destoinicia (9).
În al unsprezecelea rând avem informaţii de la istorici antici despre existenţa ,pe teritoriul Daciei, a unei cetaţi Ramadava (Ramidava) precum şi a alteia numită Romula, toponime care ar putea veni şi de la Rama nu neapărat de la Roma. Ramung este si el prinţul valah, din epopeea Nibelungilor, ceea ce arată că tradiţia dacică s-a perpetuat până în ev- mediu.
În al doisprezecelea rând avem acelaşi destin tragic la sfârşit de epopee a personajului feminin, atât în Ramayana getică cât şi în cea hindusă.
Sita, soţia lui Rama, cât şi Doamna lui Negru-Vodă dispar, ambele, în cadrul unui anume scenariu înghiţite de pământ. Să ne amintim finalul epopeii Ramayana, când Sita, în faţa banuielii nedrepte ce se aducea neprihănirii sale, cere pământului a cărei fiică era ( cuvântul,,sita” înseamnă în limba sanscrită ,,brazdă”) să se deschidă şi să o resoarbă. În momentul în care Sita se aruncă în pământul ce tocmai s-a deschis acesta o primeşte precum îmbrăţişarea unei mame.Aidoma Sitei şi Doamna lui Negru-Vodă se sinucide, aruncându-se spre pământ. Conteaza mai putin ca legenda, numită ,,Piscul Doamnei” a
ajuns până la noi deformată, întamplarea fiind pusă pe seama unor evenimente generate de un conflict armat între valahi şi tătari, timp în care soţia lui Negru-Vodă se aruncă de pe o stâncă pentu a nu fi prinsă. Pentru noi important este că principiul resorbţiei lumii fenomenale, simbolizat prin fiica pământului se respectă întrutotul. Dacă vrem să înţelegem în intenţia şi simbolica sa originară legenda ,,Piscul Doamnei” trebuie să apelăm acum la versurile de o frumuseţe tulburătoare din Ramayana care spun : Se deschise-atunci pământul şi-apăru un tron de aur/, Tron înconjurat de zâne, ca un trandafir de frunze/…Mama îşi luă în braţe pe copila ei curată/, Fiica sfântului Janaka, Sita , blânda, preafrumoasa ! Toţi îi laudă virtutea! Sita însă nu mai este ! Rama-i singur! Fericirea zilelor pierdutu-i-s-a… (10).
Iată dousprezece argumente pentru a afirma că Negru-Vodă nu a fost un personaj istoric ci un erou de epopee unul si acelaşi cu Rama din Carpaţi. 

Note : 
1).B.P.Haşdeu, Istoria critică a românilor, Ed.Minerva, Bucureşti, 1984, pg.150.
2).I.M.Cristea, În Ţara surâsului-Thailanda, Ed.Libra, Bucureşti, 2000, pg. 134; v. si M.Martiş, De la Bharata la Gandhi, Ed.ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1987; se poate consulta şi Mică enciclopedie de istorie universală, Ed.politică, Bucureşti, 1988.
3).Valmiki, Ramayana, Ed. pentru literatură, 1968, vol.2, pg. 295.
4).A se vedea N.Desuşianu, Dacia preistorică, Ed. Mentor, 2000; Maria Gimbutas, Civilizaţie şi cultură, Ed. Meridiane, Bucureşti, 1989; ,,Carpaţii leagănul civilizaţiei euro-indo-iranice”, în Anexa II din volumul, Iordanes, Getica, Ed. Gândirea, Bucureşti, 2001, cu un studiu introductiv de Gabriel Gheorghe.
5).Ion Taloş, Meşterul Manole, Ed.Grai şi suflet, Bucureşti, 1997, pg. 355.
6).Despre Roman şi Vlahata a se vedea Gheorghe Bratianu, Ed.Eminescu, Bucureşti, 1980, pg. 155 dar şi B.P. Haşdeu, op. cit. pag.158-160.
7).Legende populare geografice, Ed.Sport-turism, 1986, pg. 119; 125; 203; precizăm că înţelesul cuvântului ,,săritoare” din legende este acela de ,,cascadă”-locul în care apa sare.
8).Legende populare româneşti, Ed.Albatros, Bucureşti, 1983, pg. 144.
9).Folclor din Oltenia şi Muntenia, vol.V, Ed. Minerva, Bucureşti, 1970, pg. 328.
10).Valmiki, op. cit. vol. II, pg. 283.
(Comunicare susţinută la Congresul internaţional de dacologie, Bucuresti, 14-16 iunie 2009).

Numarul 493 din 24.09.2009

  2008 august, nr.437 -    O istorie a romanului de la Ramayana la Don Quijote

Afirmarea unui supragen

Autor: Şerban AXINTE

Civilizaţia romanului. O istorie a romanului de la Ramayana la Don Quijote
Editura Cartex,
Bucureşti, 2008, 320 p.

Mirela Roznoveanu, eseistă de mare calibru în anii ’80 şi ’90 şi rezidentă din 1991 la New York, este autoarea cărţii Civilizaţia romanului. O istorie a romanului de la Ramayana la Don Quijote (Editura Cartex, 2008), unul dintre cele mai importante studii dedicate romanului universal. Vorbim despre o lucrare ştiinţifică înzestrată cu multiple valenţe autoscopice, care-şi află identitatea odată cu scrierea textului sau cu înaintarea în lectură, scriitoarea fiindu-şi sieşi hermeneut.
În „Introducere“, Mirela Roznoveanu îşi face cunoscută ipoteza de lucru, conform căreia toate civilizaţiile sau culturile şi-au gîndit în mod diferit arhitectura epico-narativă, romanul, nefăcîndu-l totuşi inaccesibil nouă, pentru că, iată, îl putem recunoaşte. Cercetătoarea consideră că, „în traseul ei temporal, umanitatea a conservat şi perfecţionat un mod romanesc de creaţie şi gîndire. Toate acestea s-au perpetuat în intenţiile universal-actualizate ale autorului: ilustrarea unor adevăruri cruciale ale lumii sale printr-o arhitectură epică în cel mai înalt grad reprezentativă pentru orizontul estetic şi spiritual al acestei lumi“. Astfel, putem înţelege ce este de fapt „civilizaţia romanului“: afirmarea existenţei perpetue, în întreaga istorie a culturilor umanităţii, a unui supragen „cu virtuţi estetice integratoare“. Cartea propune o genealogie şi, totodată, stabileşte o tipologie, un nou discurs critic, consubstanţial cu estetica, filozofia, religia, naratologia, stilistica şi tehnica naraţiunii.

Trebuie menţionat că studiul de faţă a apărut iniţial în două volume. Primul (Rădăcini, Editura Albatros, 1983) analiza arhitecturile epice existente în străvechile lumi, hindusă, iraniană, egipteană, chineză, greacă, latină, pentru ca al doilea (numit chiar Arhitecturi epice, Editura Cartea românească, 1991) să se centreze pe construcţiile romaneşti ale creştinismului timpuriu, ale Evului Mediu european şi ale Renaşterii, ale Bizanţului, ale Arabiei şi Japoniei. Timp de 20 de ani, lucrarea nu a lipsit din nici o bibliografie serioasă dedicată romanului.

Cele trei cercuri
 Reunirea într-un tom unic a celor două părţi ale studiului şi reintrarea acestuia în circuitul lucrărilor de referinţă despre roman sînt însoţite de un alt text, de o „predoslovie“ teoretică formată dintr-o „Introducere“ (din care am citat mai sus) şi un „Cuvînt înainte“ (care a prefaţat iniţial, în 1991, Arhitecturile epice). Nu vorbim despre o simplă dare de seamă sau despre exprimarea unor deziderate de natură metodologică. Paratextul exegezei de faţă este format dintr-o succesiune de cercuri concentrice. Primul, cel mai „strîmt“, este acela al textului care se autointerpretează şi propune metafore critice complexe, ce se împlinesc doar în timpul lecturii cărţii propriu-zise sau chiar după parcurgerea ultimei file. Al doilea ţine de metacritica Civilizaţiei romanului. Ediţia cea nouă contracarează, cu argumente bine întemeiate, unele reproşuri aduse în timp studiului despre care vorbim. Astfel, autoarea reuşeşte să-şi exprime mult mai clar viziunea asupra romanului şi, mai ales, asupra metodelor de cunoaştere şi de recunoaştere a acestuia. Ultimul cerc, deşi periferic, este foarte important din punctul de vedere al cercetării ştiinţifice. Bibliografia domeniului îmbogăţindu-se cu numeroase titluri, în ultimii 25 de ani, era firesc ca Mirela Roznoveanu să-şi aducă lucrarea la zi. Dar interesant este faptul că autoarea nu a avut prea multe lucruri de aflat şi de învăţat din cărţile editate între timp, pentru că acestea nu au avut alt rol decît acela de a-i confirma şi verifica propriile teorii. Aşadar, studiul apărut jumătate în comunism, jumătate în plin haos postdecembrist este, în fapt, precursorul, cel puţin moral, al mai multor lucrări consacrate romanului, publicate în ultimii ani, mai ales în spaţiul american. Acest
lucru este dovedit pe tot parcursul cărţii prin numeroasele trimiteri bibliografice, care oferă valenţe caleidoscopice întregului edificiu teoretico-analitic.

Să ne întoarcem acum la ce înseamnă cu adevărat „civilizaţia romanului“. Mirela Roznoveanu vorbeşte despre existenţa unui epic superior arhitecturat, recognoscibil în lumile de dinaintea lumii noastre, dar „formulat din perspectiva unor exigenţe estetice diferite“, acesta făcîndu-şi simţită prezenţa de fiecare dată cînd o civilizaţie ajungea la apogeul dezvoltării sale. Cercetătoarea consideră că epicul superior arhitecturat este aparent acelaşi (ceea ce ne trimite cu gîndul la teoria invarianţilor a lui étiemble) şi, totodată, diferit pretutindeni. Acelaşi, deoarece se lasă înţeles, admirat şi valorizat din perspectiva generală a culturii, diferit, pentru că arhitecturile estetice create în civilizaţii culturale deosebite nu se pot suprapune. Aşadar, „civilizaţia romanului este orizontul de tensiune dintre forma estetică integratoare şi civilizaţie, în ansamblul ei“.

O sinteză a sintezei

Primele forme de roman sînt conţinute în „Tipul vedic“, Ramayana fiind o structură epică ce se raportează la o realitate extratextuală, „un text în care epicul şi poezia coexistă dincolo de orice rivalităţi“ şi în care sînt înglobate toate relaţiile, structurile, temele, motivele, obsesiile, efectele stilistice narative etc. Această formă de artă se apropie foarte mult de ceea ce înţelegem noi astăzi prin roman, tocmai datorită caracterului proteic al acestuia. Odiseea celei mai populare specii a genului epic continuă cu Ghilgameş, text ce prefigurează apariţia altor capodopere ale genului. Mirela Roznoveanu stabileşte mereu geneza unei opere literare şi identifică legăturile (uneori involuntare) care se înfiripă la nivel macrotextual între scrieri separate de adevăraţi eoni culturali. Reducînd totul la o singură frază, afirmăm că romanul lui Ghilgameş aduce în atenţie, înaintea Vechiului şi a Noului Testament, ideea conform căreia „numai cuvîntul sau, mai bine spus, arta cuvîntului poate eterniza un destin“.

Autoarea analizează literatura egipteană din perspectiva sau prin filtrul timpului. Deosebit de interesantă este ideea că prezentul dramatic şi eternitatea au unul şi acelaşi chip pentru cititorul prezumtiv al unor scrieri de tipul Cărţii morţilor. Roman se pare că este însăşi Biblia; autoarea demonstrează acest fapt prin interpretarea Bibliei din perspectiva naratologiei. Naratorul care narează în numele lui Dumnezeu, naratorul care îl ignoră, dar nu îl neagă pe Dumnezeu, naratorul martor asemeni lui Dumnezeu, naratorul care l-a pierdut pe Dumnezeu, naratorul care ţine locul lui Dumnezeu, naratorul care îl regăseşte reprezintă multiplele faţete ale autorului-narator, omniscient şi etern. Biblia se pare că anticipează toate vocile posibile, toate instanţele ordonatoare aflate în spatele unui text. Romanul chinez este considerat homofonic, expresie a spiritului sintetic chinez, ce condensează mai multe lumi imaginare şi mai multe arhitecturi epice într-un text unic. În legătură cu Iliada se avansează ideea că aceasta ar fi fost inspirată de alte scrieri anterioare, pe care Homer nu le recunoaşte însă drept temelie a arhitecturii sale epice. Romanul lui Apuleius e înţeles ca replică la adresa romanului grec, convenţia metamorfozei înlesnind crearea unei psihologii şi pătrunderea autorului în conştiinţa personajului său, tehnică ce anticipează marea proză analitică a secolului al XX-lea. Dacă a fost sau nu Aurelius Augustinus o „verigă de aur“ în dezvoltarea romanului universal este întrebarea care persistă şi după minuţioasa analiză a Mărturisirilor, singura hagiografie cunoscută a eului, a sufletului interior al autorului.

În capitolul „Decorul unei idei“ sînt stabilite reperele epicului arab, în formula căruia personajul-narator pune accentul asupra aventurii personale („ea însăşi o suită de metamorfoze“), ce impune romanului o anumită notă realistă, „unde evenimentul prim este selectat de persoana retorului, faţă de care păleşte orice altă aventură“.
Romanul japonez este comentat din perspectiva unei estetici a libertăţii nelimitate, care determină, pe de o parte, caracterul antiepic al acestuia şi, pe de altă parte, posibilitatea de a condensa în sine „mult mai multe sensuri decît se rostesc“. În „Permanenţa unei sinteze“ se demonstrează faptul că spiritul culturii răsăritene s-a configurat în Bizanţ „prin obsesia realismului istoric într-o cultură unde realismul nu avea ce căuta; în ruptura eului creator care scria, pe de o parte cum se cerea, dar în ascuns, aşa cum îi dicta conştiinţa; în imposibilitatea romancierului, tiranizat de operele clasice, de a opta pentru un stil personal într-o cultură unde stilul a devenit o soluţie salvatoare; în criza opţiunilor filozofice într-un univers al ideilor sfîşiat de eclectism sau dogme; în împovărătoarea stimă faţă de modelele caracterologice vechi, ce păreau a lumina prin echilibru, dar nu mai corespundeau sufletului nou; în refugiul în teme neangajante; în modul în care romancierul înţelegea să slujească duhul ortodox, fervoarea creştină a maselor prin crearea eroului smerit şi mîntuit“. În penultimul capitol, autoarea fixează dubla filiaţie a romanului medieval occidental: prima, de factură clasică, latină, a doua, de natură bizantină. Ca o concluzie la analiza operelor unor autori precum Chrétien de Troyes sau Giovanni Boccaccio, este accentuată ideea că, în acea perioadă „pentru prima oară în istoria romanului occidental, spiritul Orientului şi spiritul Occidentului fuzionează pentru a se despărţi apoi pentru multe secole“. Redescoperirea romanului greco-latin a fost urmată de apariţia şi impunerea ca model dominant în cultura europeană a romanului cavaleresc. Păşind pe urmele lui Pulci, Tasso, Ariosto, Castiglione sau Rabelais, cercetătoarea ajunge la Cervantes, cu alte cuvinte, face posibilă întîlnirea (în interiorul capitolului final, „De la Orlando la Don Quijote“) dintre parodie şi obiectul parodiat. Toate asemănările şi deosebirile dintre cele două arhitecturi epice sînt privite simultan prin ochii ambelor feţe ale lui Ianus.

Ecuaţia totalităţii

Mirela Roznoveanu rescrie devenirea romanului nu doar în perspectivă diacronică. Fiecare segment al cărţii este conectat la întreg, orice amănunt primeşte un rol important în procesul rezolvării unei ecuaţii a totalităţii. Vorbind despre romanul indian, grec, latin, chinez sau japonez, cercetătoarea mărturiseşte şi ceva despre prezent. Trecutul îşi determină viitorul, tot aşa cum prezentul repune în discuţie şi interpretează toate lumile de dinaintea sa. Din acest motiv, credem că autoarea reface de mai multe ori, dintr-o perspectivă polifonică, destinul romanului.
Nu am putut prezenta şi analiza aici mai detaliat conţinutul fiecărui capitol în parte, dar am încercat să sistematizez unele dintre acele idei pe care călătorul-hermeneut a vrut să le desluşească mai întîi pentru sine, pentru a le înapoia culturii, împreună cu amprenta sa personală, abia după ce va fi refăcut, de nenumărate ori şi în diferite moduri, drumul de la Ramayana la Don Quijote.


Comentarii utilizatori

Niculina Oprea, Luni, 25 August 2008, 20:23
Bravo, Serban!
Bogdan Suceava, Vineri, 22 August 2008, 20:05
Bravo, Serban, pentru articol. E clar ca paginile 'Observatorului cultural' ti se potrivesc cel mai bine, dintre toate locurile unde ai publicat pana acum.
Evoluţia "fiului mijlociu" al epicului
Paul Blaj, Vineri, 22 August 2008, 17:25
Dl. Şerban ne face o surpriză densă, pertinentă şi arguţioasă. Suntem bucuroşi de apariţia acestei lucrări de o luminoasă erudiţie şi parturientă ofertă intelectului doritor de informaţie pe cât de genuină pe atât de avizată, după cum ne-a obişnuit Mirela Roznoveanu. Felicitări autoarei şi strângeri de mână autorului articolului, cel ce îmbie cu tact la lectură şi reflexie.
Istoria romanului
stelian plesoiu, Vineri, 22 August 2008, 09:47
De acord cu acest comentariu asupra lucrarii scrise de Mirela Roznoveanu. Desi nu sint de specialitate
am parcurs aceasta detaliata lucrare si pot spune de departe ca este mai mult decit si-a propus autoarea. Este o carte de referinta cu un continut foarte bine documentat, cu trimiteri foarte precise, este o mica enciclopedie daca vreti. Sint convins ca foarte curind aceasta carte va fi pe masa fiecarui student studios si profund in calea cunoasterii adevarului istorico-literar.
Cu convingerea ca vom fi din nou surprinsi de autor, nu imi pot exprima decit felicitarile sincere pentru autor.

Ramayana meet in Romania

International Ramayana meet in Romania By Surender Bhutani, Indo-Asian News Service | 22 September 2006 

Bucharest, Sep 22 (IANS) Romania has been proposed as the next host of the International Ramayana Conference, after the 22nd edition of the event concluded recently in the British city of Birmingham.

Bucharest, Sep 22 (IANS) Romania has been proposed as the next host of the International Ramayana Conference, after the 22nd edition of the event concluded recently in the British city of Birmingham.
Romania, which is slated to join the European Union on Jan 1, 2007, has been the epicentre for European gypsies, who maintain that their ancestors originated from India. It is pointed out that there are some 8,000 Romani words that have Hindi and Sanskrit roots.
'Romania looks for spiritual guidance only from two places, Italy and India,' said George Anca, director-general of the National Library, Bucharest.
Anca, greatly attached to the philosophy of the Ramayana, has been instrumental in setting up an Indian Library within the complex of the National Library where many researchers are working on Hindi and Sanskrit texts.Former Indian president Shankar Dayal Sharma and recently Vice President Bhairon Singh Shekhawat visited the Indian Library during their trips to the country.
Anca, a former visiting professor at the University of Delhi during 1977-84 and then 2002-03, is hopeful that the Indian government and the growing Indian community in Romania will support his efforts to organise the next International Ramayana Conference.
It is imperative to spread the message of the Ramayana in different parts of the world in an age of ever growing violence, Anca told IANS in an interview.
He said: 'The ancient message of the Ramayana continues to be relevant for the human race. It is not surprising that Mahatama Gandhi was tremendously influenced by the teachings of the Ramayana. If Gandhiji is still relevant for the world so is his guidebook - Ramayana.' 
Spiritualitate: Rădăcini spirituale străvechi în DACIA (I)
Tentativa pe care o întreprindem, pentru a descifra unele sensuri profunde ale spiritualităţii în antichitatea atât de puţin cunoscută a locuitorilor acestor ţinuturi, se dovedeşte deopotrivă pasionantă, dar şi generatoare de riscuri; ne referim mai cu seamă la ispita, care i-a încercat pe mulţi, de a luneca pe o pantă patriotardă. Încercând să evităm această greşeală, punctul nostru de plecare, îl va reprezenta opera a doi autori români, ce constituie o referinţă în materie.


DA.KSA-TARA ZEILOR: Bogatii agatarsi si Brasov- creatii ariene! (de Nicolae Miulescu)

Bogatii agatarsi si Brasov-creatii ariene!
      Traseul lasat de grupul condus de Aswapati este cel mai vrednic de incredere.
     Indicatiile toponimiei si informatiile furnizate de istorie ne permit sa afirmam ca acest grup, ca un tot, a urmat tarmul de sud al Caspicei, pana la capatul sud-vestic.
     Din acel loc, o parte dintre ei a mers in Valea lui Cyru (acum Cura), si-a croit acest drum intre colinele vestice de la poalele mun tilor Caucaz si tarmul Euxin (Marea Neagra), au traversat Crimeea si au intrat in stepa ucraineana, apoi, urmand „Calea Zeilor” s-au asezat intre Mures si Somes. Acestia sunt stramosii agatarsilor, mentionati de Herodot (cartea a IV-a, 5-10).
Altii au mers de-a lungul raului Araxes (acum Aras), au urmarit tarmul sudic Euxin, au traversat Bosforul in Turcia (unde i-au lasat pe Shatri, vezi Herodot, VII, 110-112), apoi, cu marea in partea dreapta , au mers dincolo de capatul de est al Hemus-ului, au traversat Istrul si au urcat la pasunile inalte din Fagaras si Muntii Bucegi.
     Probabil ca ei au intrat pe acest pamant cam pe unde se varsa Vedea in Dunare, de unde grupurile s-au separat, asa cum se arata de catre numele inca existente.
Nu este greu de vazut ca rajahul Brasiva-Sala s-a stabilit in tara Barsei si ca a dat numele sau asezarii care acum se cheama Brasov. Vom mentiona doar, ca proba suplimentara, ca dealul numit Varte, din mijlocul orasului, confirma identificarea, ca termenul Varte nu vine asa cum s-ar crede din germanul Warten (a astepta), ci din vedicul Varta-pamant. Intregul nume era „Brasiva-Varta”, pamantul lui Brasiva. Este tot atat de usor de vazut ca un alt loc, numit Budila, langa Brasov, poarta numele lui VUDILA, camaradul de arme al lui Brasiva, dupa cum poate fi vazut ca satul Sarcaia poarta numele lui Sharka.ra, stramosul comun al lui Djava si Indradyumna.
      Ar putea, de asemenea, sa fie o legatura intre Satyaga Djnya si satul Jida, Djjnya insemnand „unul din Djini” care poate fi citit Jini (conform ortografiei sanscrite). Am folosit expresia „ar putea” pentru ca nu consideram aceasta legatura drept sigura. In spijinul dovezilor furnizate de identitatile de nume sunt de asemnea si coincidente curioase. Cele trei locuri Sarcaia, Brasov, Budila se afla intr-un complex de asezari purtand numele zeilor vedici. O vom numi doar pe cea mai remarcabila (n.edit: De multe milenii, primul lucru pe care il fac invingatorii este sa schimbe orice denumire ce ar putea pastra vechile traditii ale invinsilor. N-au facut exceptie nici bolsevicii, ni „democratii” de dupa 1989…
Brasov a fost redenumit orasul lui Stalin iar din ‘90 s-a inregistrat o frenezie a schimbarii denumirii strazilor si cartierelor. Fireste, Ion Antonescu a devenit un nume ilegal pentru ca nu convine adevaratilor conducatori ai Romaniei post-decembriste…)
       Tamasfalau, un loc cam la 30 km est de Brasov, poarta numele unei zeitati vedice autentice (vezi M.D.S.I, 62), tAMAS. A nu se confunda cu Tamasha, intelept al celor 7 Manu. Tamsh este zeul intunericului primordial (vezi M.D.S.I., 5 si XII, 24)
      Pava (5 km de la Tamasfalau) poarta numele lui Agni-zeul focului, care printre alte 16 nume si supranume este denumit Pavaka.
      Moaksa (22 km de Budila) poarta numele unuia dintre aspectele Divinitatii, exprimand precis aceasta unitate, infinitatea despre care vorbea Aswapati.
     Harman este derivat din Hara.mani.Ra (ieremenitul) protejat de Hara, nume dat unuia dintre marii zei, cand se referea la puterea lor fizica (de unde si Hercule).
     Ar trebui notat ca toate locurile inconjoara varful Baratau, numit dupa Bhara.ta, eroul sub a carui conducere o mare parte a Indiei a fost cucerita si ale carui fapte sunt elogiate in Mahabharata (si nu Mahabharatta, cum este scrisa uneori).
Omu-Muntele Sfant al arienilor
      O privire peste harta va fi instructiva. Pe langa identificarea numelor, fiecare unitate centrala este inconjurata de altele care o confirma. De exemplu: Aswapati-stapan al hergheliilor de cai si vizitiu si calarasi, calareti. Numai la cativa kilometri este Ludus, locul unde s-au alergat caii lor (comparativ cu latinul Ludussus= spectacole, jocuri publice).
     Brasiva- sta langa camarazii sai Vudila (Budila), de o parte si Djava- fiul lui Sharkara, pe de alta parte, cu un munte intre ei numit Cetatuia si altul purtand numele de Bhara.ta (varful Baratau). Si intreaga tara este inconjurata de munti purtand numele zeilor pe care ei ii divinizau: OMU (silaba vedica sacra), Negoiu (Nagas), Papusa (Pa.Pushan), Siriu (Shri sau Sri-zeita a bogatiei).
(Da.ksa-Tara Zeilor, Nicolae Miulescu, editura Obiectiv Craiova, Eugen Delcea )

Cuvântul  editorului    3
Introducere     13
DA.KŞA – ŢARA ZEILOR      (Nicolae  Miulescu)   15
Omul epocii glaciare    17
Limba – necesară la vânătoare   18
Dicţionarul paleo-european      19
Unitatea Europei – topită la dezgheţ…   19
Prima Epocă de Aur a Omenirii   21
Fortul Carpatic şi Fortul Gasconic      21
Animalele domesticite – trimise ale zeilor      23
Pământul Făgăduinţei de la Carpaţi şi Dunăre    24
Fortul Carpatic – sanctuarul Oamenilor Primordiali      25
Calea Zeilor migratori din… România     26
Migraţia din Carpaţi spre Caucaz, Sumer, Ind    27
II. DA.KŞA – ŢARA ZEILOR        29
Celebrii arieni erau Carpato-Istrienii  29
Vedele conţin spiritualitatea strămoşilor noştri        30
Brahma şi războiul castelor     30
Luptele lui BALA-RAMA – în Carpaţi…     31
Şi maimuţele luptau alături de Rama !   32
Ramayana descrie România…       34
Zeii vedici… de la Alexandria   34
Kauşitaki-Upanişad      36
Ţara Zeilor… de pe Someşuri     36
Sălaj – adunarea apelor 37
Zeii lunari vedici – adunare… pe Someş  38
Localităţile din Ardeal – nume de zei arieni…   39
Drumul Zeilor… spre Sălaj       40
Brahma şi Zalmoxa       41
„Brahmanii – sprijiniţi de populaţiile inferioare”      41
Casta învinsă a revenit în Dacia Pelasgă        42
Când arienii se întorc, apar sciţii…    43
Bogaţii agatârşi şi Braşov – creaţii ariene !   44
Localităţile din România – vechi de când Lumea !        46
Omu – Muntele Sfânt al arienilor        47
Cele 4 Caste    48
Du-te vino pe „Drumul Zeilor”…  49
Legile lui Manu 50
Organizare ariană… cu localităţi româneşti      51
Cele 12 triburi ariene exilate  52
Arienii Yavanas – strămoşii ionienilor  54
Tracii nu era… negri !  55
Herodot nu a greşit     55
Făurarii celţi trăiau la Cazane 56
„Naşterea lui Indra”… la Porţile de Fier !      58
Săbieşii arieni de la… Caran.sebeş, Sebeş şi Sibiu      59
Paul Chinezu era… urmaşul luptătorilor vedici   59
Hercule era… Indra !    60
De la Ind până la Tisa… 62
România – Ţara Zeilor   63
Ila – zeiţa bucuriei din Oltenia        63
Strămoşii românilor – Părinţii Europei  65
Anexa   66
Index  de  nume 68
Appendix        75
Note şi comentarii      (text inedit)   76
Someş – locul sfânt pentru vedici       76
Limba română – cheia Istoriei Universale        76
De la Hiperboreea la România    77
„Câteva curiozităţi toponimice” pot schimba Istoria Omenirii    77
Ce-i uneşte pe slavi, greci, maghiari, francezi –
      limba română      78
Filologia occidentală – în interesul Vaticanului        80
Sciţii dobrogeni – strămoşii… slavilor  80
Zalmoxe – Zeul Moş, Zalmoxe – Zeul Pământului   81
„Pe Cronos, geţii îl numesc Zalmoxis”   82
Fericirea supremă – adusă de… brahmani  82
Nemurirea – vechiul vis al Omenirii     83
Geţii – Părinţii Europei        84
Nici Zalmoxis, nici Zamolxis, ci Zalmoxa        85
Geto-dacii şi vedicii credeau în acelaşi Dumnezeu Etern 86
Religia geţilor – o religie a… Universului Infinit şi Etern     87
Hiperboreieni = geţi = daci     88
Timpul – Marele Zeu     89
Marea îndatorire – îngrijirea focului sacru     90
Ce este Sufletul Universal ?    91
UNU – Sufletul Universal        92
Limba primară - monosilabică    93
Limba – un proces cerebral      94
Cuvintele onomatopeice – din era glaciară !     95
Limba vedică (sfântă) era monosilabică ?        96
În erele glaciare, Omul a evoluat şi s-a diversificat ! 96
Diversificarea umană – datorită climei, nu metisării    97
Vânătorii primitivi – creatorii limbajului      98
Despot – „tatăl poporului”      98
Arienii din Carpaţi au dat cuvinte la europenii fraţi   99
Dacea – regele zeilor   100
Dacii vorbeau româneşte…        101
… ca şi britanicii !    102
Limba slavă – o limbă de cancelarie a statelor ortodoxe 103
Slavii – pescarii războinici    104
Tracii slavizaţi de la sudul Dunării    105
Buda s-a mutat în Dacia !       106
Slavii – pelasgi de limbă slavă 106
Fil.ologii duşmanilor Romei     107
„Istoria Românilor”… slavizaţi ?!       108
Pescarii slavi vorbeau… limbi străine   109
„Academicienii” ne-au vândut limba !    110
Primii romani… vorbeau slava ?!!        111
De ce vorbesc englezii… româneşte       112
Pelasgii şi arienii vedici din… Marea Britanie  113
Tracii, dacii şi britanicii – slavizaţi de „savanţi”…   114
Româna – Limba Primordială      115
Maghiarii vorbeau … înainte de naştere ?!       116
Limba română – aceeaşi de milenii !...  117
Heliade – Fiul Soarelui 118
Ignoranţă academică sau antiromânism ?  119
Românii au importat şi… râme ?! 119
Antica Tamasidava de pe Siret era… ungurească !?        120
Zeul anticTamaş şi cernita Tamisa       121
Primele cuvinte – numele animalelor de vânat    122
Teoria romanizării de la Vatican ne vine !...   123
Limba dacilor – prima limbă a Europei   124
Zeul Troian – veche tradiţie rusă !!?   124

DACIA – ŢARA  ZEILOR     (Tudor Diaconu)        127
Introducere     129
„Da.kşa – Ţara Zeilor – doar o sinteză  129
România – India Pontică 130
Rama din…Ramania        131
Limba sfântă, sanscrita era limba dacilor       132
Arienii daci făceau… marketing  133
Limba vedică – limba arhaică…   134
Dacia – leagănul arianismului vedic     137
Secrete ariene pentru… NASA     138
Înţelepciunea – în Centrul Spiritual, Ardeal…   138
Calea Zeilor  = Valea Someşului 139
Vedicul râu Vijara = Neagra Şarului     140
Dej – „oraşul de pe Râul Zeilor”        142
Preajba – paznicul Palatului    142
Legile Spartei – preluate de la nordul Dunării  143
România – Laboratorul Genetic   144
Incinta Zeilor şi… căţeluşa lui Indra   145
Muntele Omu – sanctuarul Antichităţii   146
Unitatea culturii antice – prin geţi    147
Adam s-a născut… pe Mureş       148
Cluj – oraşul de pe râul cald   149
Napoca – izvorul de apă caldă   150
Rarău – Ţara Arienilor  151
Siret – râul strălucitor, sfânt 151
IalOMiţa se iţeşte de sub Omu…  152
Uluitoarea competenţă a strămoşilor     153
Vechii egipteni gândeau… româneşte !    154
„Istoria – invadată de mişei şi trădători”      155
Grecii preluau legende de la… vedici ?  156
Animalele de hrană… unesc Europa        157
Agni Tatăl – zeul focului de la… Agni.Ta        158
Zeii vedici şi elini… trăiesc (numai) în România !      159
Danu.viu – zeu vedic al apelor  160
Ilita = Agni = zeii Soarelui = Sf. Ilie 160
Sfânta Scriptură era… ariană    161
Sciţii s-au întors ultimii în Ţara Zeilor…      162
Conflictul religios poate duce la… război atomic !      163
Învinsă de… preoţi,     164
Armata s-a retras pe primele poziţii…   164
Adevăratele „12 triburi exilate”        164
Primul rajah arian s-a întors la Braşov 165
Grecii şi romanii au învăţat limba… în India ?! 167
Lingviştii alogeni ne „învaţă” că migratorii erau mai civilizaţi !…     168
Vedele s-au născut… la Marea Neagră     169
„Dacia Preistorică” şi „Dacia  - Ţara Zeilor”   170
Coincidenţele din România… sunt sistematice     171
Ramayana – povestită de… harta României 172
Limba română – firul Ariadnei pentru Istoria Omenirii   173
Anexe   175
I. Greaca veche – un dialect român      176
II. Sanscrita – limba...românilor vedici        179
III. Românii din...Nigeria !    180

Their offspring account for all the major monsters of Greek mythos, including:

·       - The Nemean Lion – a lion often depicted with multiple heads
·       - Cerberus – a monstrous three-headed dog that guards the gate to Hades
·       - Ladon – a hundredPolycephaly - Mythological occurrences

Polycephaly - Greek mythology

·       - Greek mythology contains a number of multi-headed creatures. Typhon, a vast grisly monster with a hundred heads and a hundred serpents issuing from his thighs, is often described as having several offspring with Echidna, a creature with the body of a serpent but the face of a beautiful woman.-headed dragon that guards the garden of the Hesperides
·       - Chimera – sometimes depicted with the heads of a goat and a lion
·       - The Lernaean Hydra – an ancient nameless serpent-like chthonic water beast that possessed numerous heads
·       - Orthrus – a two-headed dog owned by Geryon
Other accounts state that some of these creatures were the offspring of Phorcys and Ceto. Phorcys is also said to have fathered Scylla, a giant monster with six dogs' heads, which terrorises Odysseus and his crew.

Polycephaly - Other mythologies

·       - Balaur, a dragon in Romanian mythology, with three, seven or twelve heads
·       - Janus, a two- or four-faced god in Roman mythology
·       - Kaliya, a multi-headed snake vanquished by Krishna in Indian mythology
·       - Nehebkau, a two-headed snake in Egyptian mythology
·       - Orochi, an eight-headed snake in Japanese mythology
·       - Ravana, the ten-headed King of Lanka from the Hindu smriti Ramayana
·       - Triglav (meaning "three headed") is a god or complex of gods in Slavic mythology


The myth of the Blajini

As Romanians generally perceived the earth as a disc, they were naturally creative enough to imagine what existed on the other side. This other earth is imagined as a mirror image of our own, and as a home to creatures called Blajini [blaˈʒinʲ] ("gentle/kind-hearted ones"), sometimes given the name Rohmani [ˈroh.manʲ] in Bucovina. They are described as anthropomorphic and short, sometimes having the head of a rat. They are either described as malicious or as having great respect for God and leading a sinless life. They are considered to fast the year through, and thus doing humans a great service.[7]
The Romanian holiday Paştele Blajinilor (the Easter of the Blajini) is a way to repay them for the benefits they bring. Since they live in isolation, they have no way of knowing when Easter comes. It is for this reason that Romanians eat dyed eggs and let the shells flow downstream, from there they believe they will get to the Apa Sâmbetei, and from there to the Blajini.[8]
Some explain them as the descendants of Adam's son Seth. Others state that they used to live alongside humans on the earth, but that Moses, seeing his people oppressed by them, parted the waters and, after he and his people had retreated to safety, poured the waters back onto them, sending them to their current abode.[9]


Romanian myths part of international culture

·       Vampire - See strigoi and moroi, which are more phantom- or wizard-like creatures.
·        (vârcolac)
·       Şobolan - A giant rat similar to the SA capybara. Rural Romanian folklore attributes the şobolan human Werewolfcharacteristics.
·       Solomonar - See Hultan and Solomonari, which were a group of nobles and wizards made famous more by the families who were members of the society then for their deeds. However, this is mainly do to the secret crusades of Christianity and their attempt to destroy all history and knowledge of these Wizards. Some of these names include Dracula Vlad, Solomon, Despina the Impure, Ty'ere, Ventruszch, Brohmyr, Izhain and Vohc.
Most of these names can be found in Romanian Lore in reference to Vampires and Dragons.


·       Paparuda

in folk literature

·       Baba Dochia
·       Balaur (dragon)
·       Baubau, variant form Babau (similar to the Bogeyman)
·       Căpcăun (an ogre)
·       Căţelul Pământului
·       Fata Pădurii
·       Ileana Cosânzeana
·       Iele
·       Luceafăr - Personages similar to Planet Venus
·       Moroi (a type of vampire)
·       Moşul (the old man)
·       Muma Pădurii
·       Pricolici (a werewolf or demon)
·       Rohmani (or Blajini)
·       Samca
·       Solomonari
·       Sânziana (or Drăgaică)
·       Spiriduş (a sprite)
·       Stafie - similar to Ghost
·       Strigoi (a vampire or zombie)
·       Uniilă (a devil )
·       Uriaş - similar to Giant
·       Ursitoare - similar to the Fates
·       Vasilisc - similar to Basilisk
·       Vâlva
·       Vântoase (spirits of the wind)
·       Vârcolac (werewolf)
·       Zână (fairy)
·       Zburător
·       Zorilă
·       Zmeu


·       Ber-Căciulă
·       Doamna Neaga
·       Făt-Frumos
·       Ileana Cosânzeana
·       Greuceanu
·       Iovan Iorgovan
·       Ler Imparat
·       Luana
·       Baba Novac

List of folk dances


Motto: "Truth needs only two groups of people to surface: some to express it and others to hear it." (Henry THOREAU)
The well-known Greek historian, Herodotus, used to say the following about Thracians: "...after the Indians, the Thracian people constituted the largest ethnicity among all the rest of the world's races. Should they benefit from one ruling only and be spiritually united, they might acceed to become, in my opinion, absolutely undefeatable and to surpass, by far, the greatness of all the other Earth's proud races. The Thracians bear many names, each one according to their living regions, yet all of them show, through almost everything, highly similar customs". But, if Herodotus' knowledge was limited to some 19 Thracian tribes, another historian, Strabon, was nevertheless, depicting no fewer than 22 tribes! Obviously, among such a rich variety of tribal social life forms, some religious differences must have existed, which can no longer be known today. The point is that the Thracian race was great throughout all the Antiquity, and famed because of their physical resistence and their overall skills regarding traditional medicine. A proof of the latter would be to quote Socrates, the great Greek plilosopher, who was once confessing to have personally learned, straight from one of Zalmoxis' apprentices, an incantation of those "ABLE TO MAKE HUMAN BEINGS IMMORTALS". Much later, across centuries, Clement from Alexandria was reproaching to the Greeks a "lack of originality" within their own civilization, and that these would have learned from Thracians their curative incantation formulas: "Sanas incantationes a Thracibulus accepisti" (in Latin, from: Clement of Alexandria, "Appeal Towards Nations", Migne, page 18, column 175b).

Gebeleizis, or Nebeleizis, was the Thracians' Supreme Divinity lightning constituting only one of the "weapons" that this he was said to have used. He was represented through the shape of a handsome sculptural male, occasionally wearing a beard. Gebeleizis provoked thunder and lightning. In some representations, he appears seated on a majestic throne, while in others on horseback, holding an arch in his left hand. A snake is seen coming down versus the horse's head. He is also accompanied, at times, by a one-horned vulture. The vulture holds a fish in its beak symbolizing the named Divinity by itself, and also has a rabbit entrapped within its claws. This God embodies the Absolute Master upon Heaven and Earth, the Patron of military aristocracy. He might possess, though, some Uranian- Solar attributes. The Supreme God, the Great God Gebeleizis is also known under the nicknames of Derzelas, Derzis or the Thracian Knight (others consider "THE THRACIAN KNIGHT" as being a later apparition of some Hero, and not of a God). Other times, the God shows up in the hypostasis of a warrior horseman, accompanied by a faithful hound. He holds a spear as an insignia of power, which is ready to be thrown upon a wild boar from the horse's gallop. When not being shown under a warrior or hunter's appearance, he appears as a peaceful horseman, carrying either a torch or a cornu copia. Sometimes, he is presented as having three heads (Tricephalus), alike the accompanying hound, while othertimes as a blessing God, having his right hand's first three fingers risen or opened, the rest being tightened towards the upper palm. He shows up in these ways within all epigraphic and numismatic testimonies found at the ancient cities of Histria and Odesos (the latter presently called Varna). At Limanu (Constanta County), Derzelas appears shown on horseback, as he similarly may be seen on the Racatau and Zimnicea old pottery, or the Bucharest-Herastrau and Surcea (Constanta County again) discovered hoards.
We shall also encounter him later throughout the Antique world, at the Macedonians -"Macedonian Horseman", while Greek Mithology would similarly carry him under the supreme name of Zeus. From Thracia, Gebeleizis' cult had spread to penetrate inside Asia Minor during 7th century B.C., where it was promptly assimilated by Armenians up to becoming their National Divinity, namely Vahagn or the God of War, most famous for his courage in slaying dragons. Vahagn was associated with lightning and thunder, being represented like an imposing man with hair and beard carved out of flames, while "his eyes were scintillating like two Suns". Ultimately, Gebeleizis or "the Thracian Knight", who is to be found in other people's Mithologies as Zeus or Vahagn, has been logically assimilated by Christian nations to become... Saint George (or Gheorghe) killing the Dragon!
The Supreme male Divinity of Geta-Dacians Gebeleizis, later referred to, at the Lower-Danube area Thracians under the likely Greekenized name of Zbelsurdos, also goes by having a feminine alter-ego, a double named BENDIS, the Great Goddess. Ancient representations, recently discovered, show her to our eyes through the face of a full-figured woman, with prominent cheek bones and curly hair either plaited into two tresses or splitted into two big curls surrounding her lovely looks. Is it really possible that the Goddess Bendis, with her two very long blond tresses gently resting on her back, might actually be a predecessor of the fairy Ileana Cosanzeana, from the later-born popular tales of Romanians? In certain situations, the Goddess appears standing between two sacred animals, which are either deers-like, or between a buck and a snake. The Great Goddess Bendis was mostly adored by Thracian women, for she was embodying the Goddess of Moon, Forests and... Magical charms. A head of the Goddess was discovered at Costesti, while archaeological digging around ruins of the old Sarmisegetuza fortress has brought to light a burned-clay made medallion (measuring 10 cm in diameter and 1.5 cm thickness) showing a Goddess bust with a quiver on shoulder. One of her bronze made busts was discovered at Piatra Rosie, measuring 14.7 cm in height and 13 cm width.
Besides the Supreme God Gebeleizis and the Great Goddess Bendis, Thracians have also had a Divinity of Flames and Fireplace and Guardian of the House, respectively the Goddess VESTA (or Hestia, Histia), to the veneration of whom Thracian houses were built strictly in a rectangular form with stoned or wooden walls. The floor was of trodden soil and had a "two-angle" roof. Not far away from Tartaria region, inside the triangular area of the three "Crish" rivers, astounding remains of the first surface dwellings dating from as early as fifth millenium B.C. have been recently uncovered, meaning they were no less than 7000 years old! These types of dwellings, which would spread afterwards through the entire world, indeed seemed to have been the result of a cult dedicated to this Goddess. The walls were initially meant to protect the sacred space within, and in the middle, flames were lit in a fireplace which were constantly taken care of to keep alight.
The fourth millenium B.C. wasn't exactly a lucky one for the future-to-be Romanian people, stated the experts referring themselves to the crumbling period of the legendary continental bridge which was linking Europe with Asia Minor. This bridge collapsed under the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, thus leaving plenty of room for the formation of a brand new sea, named the Egean Sea. This generated as well a multitude of larger and smaller islands. Due to the very existence of this terrestrial linking bridge, both ancient and modern Greek historians were entitled to acknowledge the possibility of a migration for the Thracian population from the Pontic-Danubian region to the South of the Balcan Peninsula, and from there, towards Asia Minor itself, reaching to some lands around the Eastern Mediterranean such as Bytinia, Missia, Phrygia, Throada, Lydia etc. As it is known today, the fate of each of these civilizations evolved quite differently. Some "lost themselves" among more numerous tribes and completely "vanished" as national identity inside History's immense pit called "forgetfulness"-the Hititians, for instance. Others disappeared at vast distances, as is the Trojans' case, about whom a legend (Virgilius' "Aeneida") tells how Aeneas, the Thracian, guided the survivors of Troja fortress' doomsday up to the Tybrus River's narrow valley on the Italic Peninsula, where they took over Seven "eternal" Hills and afterwards, gave them Thracian "Latin" names. Still, another legend states that within the Carpathian Space, an extremely wise sheperd, Zalmoxis, showed up who was to take over "the Noble Laws" (that is, the "Beleagin's Code") from the Goddess Hestia (or Vesta).

Here are Herodotus' testimonies on Zalmoxis: "According to what I have found out from the (ancient) Greeks living on the shores of Helespontus and Pontus Euxinus (which is today known as the Black Sea), the Zalmoxis whom I'm talking about, being just a mortal, was actually a former slave on Samos Island, specifically belonging to Phytagoras, son of Menesarcos. Being granted, afterwards, free man's status from his grateful master, he would skillfully amass large riches and would return to his homeland after accumulating enough wealth, where he would build a large mansion meant to host important gatherings and personally receiving these people and summoning the Thracian land's leaders to party. Meanwhile, preaching everybody that none of them, or their descendants would ever die for real, but everybody was to go to a certain place instead, where they would indeed live forever and enjoy all the finest meals and pleasures which they would only dream of. As he was accomplishing all the already mentioned deeds and was saying such things to the crowds, he secretly ordered an underground residence to be constructed for himself. When it was ready, Zalmoxis disappeared from the nucleus of Thracian social life and descended to his underground "bunker". He lived there for about three or four years. The Thracians thought he had vanished and wanted him back dearly, lamenting his loss as if he were really dead. At the end of his 4th year, Zalmoxis appeared once more to their eyes, thus managing to make his teachings believable through some kind of "personal example". Regarding Zalmoxis' background itself and his underground hiding shelter, I personally don't fully reject everything that is said, but don't believe too much in it either. It seems to me, though, that he might have actually lived many years before Phytagoras' time.So let Zalmoxis be well, whatever he represents, either a human being or some Demon of the Geta (namely Thracian) people" (Herodotus, "Histories", volume IV, pages 94-95). As we can see, the naive identification of God Zalmoxis with one of Pythagoras' slaves, who became afterwards free and wealthy, is being disputed even by Herodotus himself. Why should WE believe it then?...
Similar accounts are also made by Hellanicos from Mithilenes, by the Great Plato, Mnasea (this last one was even considering Zalmoxis as the Eternity God Chronos!), Diodorus from Sicily, Strabon mostly, Apulleius, Lucianus from Samosatas, Orygenes, Porphyrius (232-304) and Julian the Apostle, Aeneas from Ghaza, and Hesychios from Alexandria. All of them heard and discussed about Zalmoxis who remained within people's memories as a God of the so-called "Underworld Kingdom", as being otherwise suggestively described by the Romanian National Poet, Mihai Eminescu, in his poem "The Phantoms":
"On a huge Throne carved in rock, sits rigidly, pale, yet straight,
With his hand holding the Staff, the Pagan and righteous Priest..."
Lithuanians, at their turn, are going to take over "our" Zalmoxis as God Zemeuks, the name signifying "Land" or "Country". He still represents the God of the Earth's depths, but nevertheless the God of vegetation and fertility, the God of ploughmen and sheperds. But, if Gebeleizis was promising them only the immortality of spirit (for the ritual of cremating dead ones on funeral pyres is associated to his cult), Zalmoxis was yet overgranting to his faithfuls COMPLETE IMMORTALITY, both for the soul and body (the funeral procedure being, in this case, burial), while the believers' spirits would keep on living inside the Kingdom of the Underworld God (just alike Harald's, the teen-ager King, next to Maria's, the Danubian Queen, from the same poem "Phantoms" of our Great Eminescu).
The concept of Zamolxian immortality was representing the very Ethics' concept among all young warriors of the "the Dacian (Thracian) Wolves", who were enjoying the imminent Death's perspective and were even laughing at it, precisely in order to show their indifference towards such an event and their looking forward to faster reaching God's underground meadows. These youngsters were fighting and dying joyfully under the "Wolf's Head" Dacian banner, which we would also encounter at the Macedonians, as well as at the so-called "Roman " legions later, that had actually been formed from Thracians living within boundaries of the Roman-occupied territories.
Human sacrifices for religious purposes had proven to be quite singular in Europe, and one can find them strictly among Thracians. With this perspective in mind, most interesting appears to be a certain similarity with the Aztec civilization's religious traditions, about whose civilization Edgar Cayce was surely stating that they would be direct descendants of the "Atlantis" people (namely, inhabitants of former ancient continent Atlantida, from which the very last portion of land went down in the middle of Atlantic Ocean, through a huge disaster, some 12,600 years ago). Should this peculiar resemblance provide a clue, with respect to a very close friend's suggestion in supporting the presumed joint origin between Central America's Indians and Thracians?... Once every five years, Zalmoxis was sent a kind of "messenger" who was to inform the God on the people's wishes. The chosen one, some young warrior of great physical beauty, unparalleled courage in battles and untainted morality, was thrown into three sharpened spears belonging to his fellow warriors. Should he have had the bad luck not to die instantly, he would be insulted and mocked while another "herald" was prepared and immediately "sent" to personally deliver his message to the Underworld God.
While Zalmoxis represented a God of the "Underworld", Gebeleizis was the "Heavenly" God. The discoveries in Orastie Mountains, as well as of the Great Circular Sanctuary within the Sarmisegetuza (Dacians' main fortress), with its pillars' regular disposal, lead us to assume that some celestial examination was also carried out. Archaeological excavations done under the Cluj native historian Constantin Daicoviciu's supervision have brought to light, within the Gradistea Muscelului area (Orastie Mountains), not only an entire complex of Sanctuaries but also a likely original Dacian calendar, and also the remains of a staircase which was, probably, leading towards an underground place of religious cult.
From a wise man such as Socrates, the Great Greek philosopher quoted by one of his peers, namely Plato, we learn about Zalmoxis to have been, besides a brilliant psychotherapist, also a... magician. Overall, a person to whom our forefathers owe their spiritual status through one of the most righteous and human social order Antiquity has ever had. For we have been indeed a kind of "spiritual State", ambivalent creation of the ones initiated by Zalmoxis and of the Great Priests from Kogaion, the Holy Mountain, a reason for which our boundaries lasted always virtually unchanged, even if, at times, either some civilization overlappings or brief artificial territorial divisions might have occured. As Alexandru Strachina has said, in his book "Trailing the Forgotten Ancestors": "Water flows by, yet ... WE remain". And it is merely odd how most of our modern historians are still able to justify their naked indifference towards all these blatant facts.
In order to better outline the existence of a SOLAR CULT among Thraco-Geta-Dacians, along her book, "Romanian Archaic Linguistic References", Dr. Mariana Marcu mentions "the Thracian Horseman" HEROS, also cited in some Egyptian epigraphic documents (as HEROUS, son of the Solar God Amon Ra himself), while several other researchers have argued that this Divinity would represent nothing else but a newer hypostasis of Horus!... The Thracian Knight's Myth appears difficult to understand. Sometimes, his head is shown surrounded by a Solar halo, a four-leaves rosette. It was assimilated by the Greek population at once with their arrival within the Balcan Peninsula, between 1900-1400 B.C., as Zeus (Helios), the Supreme Divinity, also known under other names like Nefelegeretes (actually, the Greek version of Nebeleizis) -meaning "the One who Gathers Clouds", Ombryos -"the Rain Maker", Keraunos -"the One who Lightens" and some more. Within the entire Romanian tradition (that includes Dacian-Romanian, Aromanian, Macedonian), the Thracian Knight's Myth makes an almost canonical scenario of the old Christmas Carols in winter.
An astonished Mr. C. Cinodaru was noticing that Thracians used to hold so-called "PAGAN CELEBRATIONS" during entire APRIL, precisely organized in order to honor THE THRACIAN HERO. Simultaneously with Christianity's consolidation within the Thraco-Dacian zone, this celebration has been replaced with "Saint George's" ("Saint Gheorghe's"), a holiness whose iconography was apparently inspired by that of the "Thracian Knight". Though, in certain Christmas Carols, Saint Gheorghe and Jesus' names misteriously interchange, creating in this way a total discrepancy between the Carol's greeting verses and their supposedly singing time, respectively the Winter season:

"Along the Sun's river meadows
Grow white-bluish apple flowers.
It's God's flower garden essence,
Whitish flowers, apple flowers,
Apple essence, whitish flowers."
"...His black spurry little horse
Glistening like some raven,
Still his arrow-style cut bonnet,
Bent upon the eyes
Or his mighty spear,
Summer everlasting,
Evening flash of lightning..." 

Anybody can see that nothing is mentioned within this so-called "Christmas Carol", which might suggest the Winter period. Yet, summertime appears to be explicitly recollected, as well as an extra quotation of "the Evening Flash of Lightning", namely what was the Thracian God Gebeleizis' symbol. Do you still have any doubts left about it? Within other Romanian Christmas Carol cycles, besides a personification of the Sun itself, the Sun's elder "sister", Salomina, shows up also. Nevertheless, the bride of the Hero coming back from hunting was named Ileana Daliana, or sometimes Lina Melina. We should remember here the Spring time for the Solar God's Celebration at the Thraco-Dacian tribes, just like its environmental background appears clearly pointed out along these "Christmas Carols" narrating, in fact, the time of Nature's rebirth and flourishing of "the apple whitish flowers".
And if within this mythological Romanian-Pelasgian, Thracian or Geta-Dacian puzzle, you choose to name it, we have been successful in discovering, together, our forgotten Faith in the Great God Gebeleizis, the Great Goddess Bendis or Histia, the Goddess of Flames and Fireplace, you still wouldn't have been told the essential unless we also mentioned a Great God of War's existence, namely ARES. The famous Black Sea-exiled Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso (43 B.C.-17 A.D.) speaks in his writings about the "Geta individual" next door who was worshipping Ares (an equivalent to the Roman War God Marte), while another Roman, Vegetius, comes to proclaim, no more or less, that "the God Marte has been born from within Thracian Land". And, should we also pay respect to Jordanes' declarations, who was stating that "the Geta people have always adored Marte through an extremely savage cult, killing war prisoners as sacrifices dedicated to His glory...", why should WE wonder then how VLAD THE IMPALER, whom Americans love to call "DRACULA" through Bram Stoker's work of factual History distortion, used to punish the Turkish invaders on Romanian soil by "practicing" his gruesome, Middle Age habit on around 40,000 living prisoners daily?!... On the other hand, on the Roman Emperor Trajan's bas-relief sculpted Column in Rome is presented, probably, the most ancient Warrior God ever, looking grim and ferocious, constantly soliciting a great number of human sacrifices to His glorifying pleasure. Here also appears the barbarian scene of Roman war prisoners being tortured by... Dacian women!
At the South of Danube River, Thracian civilization living around the area used to celebrate as well DIONYSUS, the Grape-Vine Divinity, Patron of the well-known dizzying liquor, whose cult has again been taken over "en passant" by the Greeks who, by this time, were fair-spirited enough in reminding the World that, shortly before Dionysus' coming back home in Thracia, he had initiated himself on Phrygian mysteries at the insistences of His grandmother! Besides the grape-vine, the ivy counted as well among this God's favorite plants. Leaves of the latter, chewed by His extremely "hot" worshippers in combination with large wine quantities, were inducing within those not only drunkeness but even a temporary stage of madness, a mania. Thus, the fact that by far the Thracians' most popular celebration was dedicated precisely to THIS God shouldn't look so surprising. It was annually held in the Autumn, once the grape-vine harvest and grape squeezing were in full progress (some researchers argue, though, it might have taken place once every three years). The night when wine was finally boiling was actually the party's proper night, at the torches' light, and everyone would drink merrily, keeping the party on going this way well into dawn. Maybe this is why Thracians were widely said to be polygamous men. Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes each of them as supportively keeping several wives. Should a "Head of Household" have died, his surviving women were also to face an essential challenge, respectively one mostly beloved by the deceased had to be on the spot identified, so that the closest relative could strangle her in order to be buried along with the late husband. Yet, all other remaining women were simultaneously experiencing genuine pain and great shame not to have been selected as the chosen one (Herodotus-"Histories", fiftth volume, pages 5, 8).
Opposite to the Grape-Vine God's wanton celebration, lasting through centuries was the cult of THE THRACIAN PRIEST, a relevant symbol for the beautiful, future life's acceptation, which was to be dedicated as well to human beings as to all other creatures' welfare. Thus, "THE SPHYNX", a giant megalithical rock standing alone on the Bucegi Mountains' upper platform and having this peculiar shape, was representing, to all Geta people, no less than the so-called "NIGHT MASTER", an entity later acquired by the same ancient Greeks as ORPHEUS. On another hand, every ancient author has written that "the Orphical Mysteries" were indeed celebrated during night time. However, due to their esotherism, Geta-Thracian Religion's elevated concepts were only acquainted to the Great Priests surrounded by a few initiated elite members. The Greek and Roman writers couldn't have left too much information about it, while being totally denied access within the Zamolxian mysteries.
Now, let us return to the "Night Master's" credo, a highly civilizing belief in Music able to tame not only humans, but nevertheless animals, by either cooling down their violent impulses or just soothing the evil instincts inside. Strabon, the already mentioned reputed historian, was also familiar with the last detail on such Pelasgian Priests, or "Prophets", namely telling us that these ones were omniscient men, truly skilled upon the dreams, Oracle prophecies and Divine signs' interpretation, who used to live in specially carved Underground Sanctuaries (called "katagoian", or "kagoian"). Regarding Orpheus' origins themselves, several Greek and Roman legends state that he WAS too a Thracian, "Prince of the Kyconian people" (which makes a perfect ethnical correspondent to the "Kogoian" term). Orpheus' native fortress is said to be Dion, and thus his descent comes from the legendary "Kogoian", Zalmoxis' Sanctuary.


The whole mythical "PANGAION", or "PANGEUL" MOUNTAIN was said to be a sacred place to all Southern Danube area's living Thracian population. On this holy location there supposedly existed a multitude of Sanctuaries, particularly because the mountain also contained plenty of richnesses, such as Gold and Silver lodes. It is assumed to have been situated somewhere within the Dragojon Massif, located in the Oriental Rodophes (a native place, also, for... Spartacus, the Pelasgian gladiator who was to fight and die hard for shaking the very foundations of Roman Empire). Other Sanctuaries were also discovered at Kilicine. Still, logically speaking, similar worshipping places must have existed and been dedicated to the glory of Great Goddess Bendis... if Thracians living in Athens, that is far away from their homeland, were nevertheless able to build a "Bendideion" for their Goddess. For the legendary Pangaion, as a main Thracian worshipping premise, seems to have been exclusively dedicated to Gebeleizis, whose Uranian- Solar Priests, the otherwise called "Wanderers through Clouds", were arguing the human body to be nothing else but the "spirit's prison", the only salvation for the soul being its liberation from the "reclusive" corpse.
Should we quote Adrian Bucurescu in accordance with his work, "The Secret Dacia", the LEGENDARY KOGAION was represented exactly by that mountain which was sheltering a cave where the Pelasgian Great Priest sought at times, refuge and confinement. Strabon writes inside his "Geography" (volume VII, pages 3-5) the following: "...In the same way, this Mountain has also been acknowledged as Sacred, and its very Geta name properly reflects the fact already mentioned: its name, Kogaion, is just alike the River's flowing near by. "KOG-A-ION" signifies "THE MAGNIFICENT'S HEAD", defining also the Bucegi Mountains' Platform where a mammoth sculpted mysterious stone head, covered with some kind of holy cap and locally known as "the Romanian Sphynx", is still to be found". Now, the river flowing "near by", at the mountain's proximity and which Strabon was depicting, couldn't have been another one but the Ialomitza, also called by Geta people through the name "Naparis", meaning "the Heavenly One" or "the Divine One". Yet, the one and only Geta-Thracian inscription explicitly referring to the name of Kogaion appears today to be a single text, made of Orphical versets, on a brick discovered at Romula (Resca, Dobrosloveni, inside the Olt County), sounding as follows: "Great is the God, always and everywhere! Thus should the Heros say, while looking towards Kogaion! Let the Disciples (namely, new recruits) sing: Holy is the Night Master!"
When Strabon used to carefully remind his readers about Dacian Priests living in underground shelters, he was actually referring to THE PRIESTS OF Zalmoxis, the same UNDERWORLD GOD who, from within KOGAION, was offering to his followers a THOROUGH IMMORTALITY, extending itself over body and soul as well. And should THE SPHYNX from Bucegi have represented, for the ancient Geta people, Orpheus' Head, either sculpted by human hands or moulded through some natural phenomena, at any rate it WAS, and WILL EXIST there FOREVER, within the Land of legendary Kogaion, always creating mysteries and spreading a majestic quietness.
Ultimately, I sincerely hope to have succeeded in sketching a complete Mythological Pantheon of our Forgotten Forefathers, either Pelasgians, Thracians or Geta-Dacians, as you choose to name them. Any so-called "Trajanic", "Latin" and "Slavonic" topics don't really belong to US, yet they were subsequently added within time by:
1). any of those willing to generate delusion and minimize the Carpatho-Danubian area population's essential role to the later development of European Civilization, by suggesting that Romania's present corresponding geographical region was not at all the very starting point, the civilization's cradle, but only an obscure province of the now fallen Roman Empire;
2). the ones to have always wanted some territorial revendication upon Romania's various regions, claims that were to be, somehow, vindicated, the only arguments capable of winning ignorants and fools' confidence being the ones related to "origins", "language", "religion" and "history", last one most easily in being mystified;
3). any of those affiliated to special groups of interest, regarding another World's geopolitical division and, as a result, being directly concerned in undermining both the importance and influence which the Romanian people's millenary civilization and culture still own among the Great Family of Nations around the Globe.
There exists, nevertheless, a so-called "FATE OF TRUTH", and, just as THOREAU has once cleverly pointed out, this one "needs only two groups of people to surface: some to EXPRESS IT and... others to HEAR IT".


"Indo-European Poetry and Myth" by W. L. West was published by Oxford University Press in 2007. Contents: 0. Introduction 1. Poet and Poesy 2. Phrase and Figure 3. Gods and Goddesses 4. Sky and Earth 5. Sun and Daughter 6. Storm and Stream 7. Nymphs and Gnomes 8. Hymns and Spells 9. Cosmos and Canon 10. Mortality and Fame 11. King and Hero 12. Arms and the Man


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